Items tagged “knee”

122 results found
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Cyclops lesion (knee)

The cyclops lesion, also known as localized anterior arthrofibrosis, is a painful anterior knee mass associated with loss of extension that arises as a complication of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, although has rarely been reported in patients with ACL injuries that have not b...
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Discoid meniscus

Discoid menisci are anatomical variants that have a body that is too wide, usually affecting the lateral meniscus. They are incidentally found in 3-5% of knee MRI examinations.  Epidemiology Discoid menisci are congenital, frequently bilateral (up to 50%) and have been reported in twins, altho...
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Double posterior cruciate ligament sign

The double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sign appears on sagittal MRI images of the knee when a bucket-handle meniscal tear (medial meniscus in 80% of cases) flips towards the center of the joint so that it comes to lie anteroinferior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) mimicking a seco...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries can be subdivided into: acute injuries quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patellar tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patellar sleeve fractures chronic injuries  Osgood-Schlatter...
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Lipohemarthrosis

Lipohemarthrosis results from an intra-articular fracture with escape of fat and blood from the bone marrow into the joint, and is most frequently seen in the knee, associated with a tibial plateau fracture or distal femoral fracture; rarely a patellar fracture. They have also been described in ...
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Insall-Salvati ratio

The Insall-Salvati ratio or index is the ratio of the patella tendon length to the length of the patella and is used to determine patellar height.  Usage The Insall-Salvati ratio is probably the most commonly used measurement to assess patellar height, partially based on its simplicity. It can...
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Meniscal flounce

Meniscal flounces refer to the "ruffled" appearance of the inner margin of knee menisci. They were initially thought to be only an arthroscopic finding, as a result of joint distension and anesthetic muscle relaxants but they are occasionally seen on MRI.  Epidemiology Meniscal flounces are un...
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O'Donoghue unhappy triad

O'Donoghue unhappy triad or terrible triad often occurs in contact and non-contact sports, such as basketball, football, or rugby, when there is a lateral force applied to the knee while the foot is fixated on the ground. This produces an abduction-external rotation mechanism of injury ("pivot s...
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Osgood-Schlatter disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease, also known as apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a chronic fatigue injury due to repeated microtrauma at the patellar tendon insertion onto the tibial tuberosity, usually affecting boys between ages 10-15 years. Terminology Unresolved Osgood-Schlatter disease is t...
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Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) most commonly affects the knee. See osteochondritis dissecans article for a general discussion. Pathology Location The condition occurs bilaterally in 25% of cases, and has a characteristic distribution 2,4,6: medial condyle: ~78.5% (range 70-85%) "classic" l...
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Popliteal artery aneurysm

Popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common peripheral arterial aneurysm and the second most common aneurysm after abdominal aortic aneurysms. Epidemiology Overall, popliteal artery aneurysms are uncommon. They occur almost exclusively in males (up to 97%) for unknown reasons 8-9. There is ...
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Quadriceps tendon

The quadriceps tendon is a thick tendon extending to the patella made up of contributions from all four quadriceps muscles. It classically has a trilaminar structure: superficial layer: rectus femoris middle layer: vastus medialis, vastus lateralis deep layer: vastus intermedius It continues...
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Rim sign (osteonecrosis)

A rim sign can be seen in osteonecrosis and comprises a high T2 or intermediate T1 signal line sandwiched between two low signal lines, and represents fluid between the sclerotic borders of an osteochondral fragment, and implies instability (stage III). This rim sign should not be confused with...
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Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee (SIF/SIFK) are stress fractures in the femoral condyles or tibial plateau that occur in the absence of acute trauma, typically affecting older adults. Terminology The entity subsumes that previously known as spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (...
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Anterior cruciate ligament mucoid degeneration

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mucoid degeneration, along with tears and anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cysts, is a relatively common cause of increased signal within the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The appearance can mimic acute or chronic interstitial partial tears of the ACL. How...
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Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ganglion cysts, commonly referred to simply as ACL cysts, along with ganglion cysts arising from the alar folds that cover the infrapatellar fat pad, make up the vast majority of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Epidemiology Anterior cruciate ligamen...
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Celery stalk sign (anterior cruciate ligament)

The celery stalk sign is a term given to the appearance of the anterior cruciate ligament which has undergone mucoid degeneration and has been likened to that of a celery stalk. Its low signal longitudinal fibers are separated from each other by higher signal mucinous material, best appreciated ...
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Pellegrini-Stieda lesion

Pellegrini-Stieda lesions refer to ossified post-traumatic lesions at (or near) the medial femoral collateral ligament adjacent to the margin of the medial femoral condyle. One presumed mechanism of injury is a Stieda fracture (avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament at the medial femo...
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Absent bow tie sign (knee)

The absent bow tie sign represents the loss of the normal appearance of the menisci on parasagittal MRI images and is suggestive of meniscal injury. Normally the medial and lateral menisci appear as low signal triangular structures linked by a thin body located between the femoral condyles and ...
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Fragment-in-notch sign (knee)

The fragment-in-notch sign is closely related to, can be thought of as a failed, double PCL sign, in so far as it represents a meniscal fragment lying in the intercondylar notch, but not paralleling the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).  Although both signs are most frequently seen in the sett...