Items tagged “liver”

243 results found
Article

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome, also known as hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO), refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete obstruction of the hepatic veins.  There is no clear consensus regarding the number of occluded veins, some authors claim that there should...
Article

Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinomas (commonest type of bile duct cancers) are malignant epithelial tumors arising from the biliary tree, excluding the gallbladder or ampulla of Vater. Cholangiocarcinoma is the third most common primary hepatobiliary malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and gallbladde...
Article

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis (plural: cirrhoses) is the common endpoint of a wide variety of chronic liver disease processes which cause hepatocellular necrosis. Cirrhosis can be diagnosed with ultrasound, CT, and MRI, and these imaging modalities can also be used to evaluate for possible complications of cirrhosi...
Article

Focal hepatic steatosis

Focal hepatic steatosis, also known as focal hepatosteatosis or (erroneously) focal fatty infiltration, represents small areas of liver steatosis. In many cases, the phenomenon is believed to be related to the hemodynamics of a third inflow.   Epidemiology Essentially the same as those that co...
Article

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder characterized by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in some non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) body organs which results in some instances of organ dysfunction. This article focuses on the general principles of ...
Article

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called hepatoma, is the most common primary malignancy of the liver. It is strongly associated with cirrhosis, from both alcohol and viral etiologies. Hepatocellular carcinomas constitute approximately 5% of all cancers partly due to the high endemic rates of...
Article

Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background hepatic parenchyma in the late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Differential diagnosis Non-neoplastic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) bright arterial phase enhancement except central scar...
Article

Mallory bodies

Mallory bodies are cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in hepatocytes, associated with ballooning and inflammation, found in: alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatitis non-alcoholic fatty liver disease hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) cholestasis
Article

Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is defined as a hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) >5 mmHg. Hepatic venous pressure gradient is a surrogate for the portosystemic pressure gradient. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as a gradient >10 mmHg and variceal bleeding may occur at a gradient...
Article

Hepatic hydatid infection

Hepatic hydatid disease is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the Echinococcus tapeworm. In the liver, two species are most commonly recognized as causing disease in humans: Echinococcus granulosus Echinococcus multilocularis For a general discussion, and links to other system-specific manifestat...
Article

Variant hepatic arterial anatomy

Variation in hepatic arterial anatomy is seen in 40-45% of people. Classic branching of the common hepatic artery from the celiac artery, and the proper hepatic artery into right and left hepatic arteries to supply the entire liver, is seen in 55-60% of the population.  Terminology An accessor...
Article

Liver

The liver is the largest abdominal organ. It plays a major role in metabolism and has many functions, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It is one of the very few organs that has the ability to regenerat...
Article

Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. Gross anatomy The falciform ligament is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the ...
Article

Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly refers to an increase in size or enlargement of the liver.  Pathology Etiology Hepatomegaly can result from a vast range of pathology including, but not limited to, the following: malignancy/cellular infiltrate multiple metastases lymphoma(s) leukemia(s) hepatocellular carci...
Case

Focal nodular hyperplasia - very large

  Diagnosis almost certain
Natalie Yang
Published 15 Aug 2009
59% complete
CT
Article

Focal nodular hyperplasia

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a regenerative mass lesion of the liver and the second most common benign liver lesion (the most common is a hemangioma). Many focal nodular hyperplasias have characteristic radiographic features on multimodality imaging, but some lesions may be atypical in app...
Case

Epiploic appendagitis and fatty liver

  Diagnosis almost certain
Natalie Yang
Published 20 Aug 2009
62% complete
CT
Article

Diffuse hepatic steatosis

Diffuse hepatic steatosis, also known as fatty liver, is a common imaging finding and can lead to difficulties assessing the liver appearances, especially when associated with focal fatty sparing. Epidemiology Diffuse hepatic steatosis is common, affecting ~25% of the population.  Pathology ...
Case

Submassive hepatic necrosis

  Diagnosis almost certain
Natalie Yang
Published 24 Aug 2009
48% complete
MRI
Case

Hepatocellular carcinoma

  Diagnosis almost certain
Natalie Yang
Published 24 Aug 2009
45% complete
CT