Items tagged “lung”

105 results found
Article

Acute unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification.   Differential diagnosis The exhaustive list of all possible causes would be huge, but a useful framework includes: pus, i.e. infection bacterial pneumonia fungal pneumonia viral p...
Article

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy (differential)

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy is a subset of the differential diagnosis for generalised airspace opacification and includes: post-obstructive causes (usually chronic, but 'new' changes can occur) primary lung cancer pulmonary metastases lymphoma/leukaemia infection pri...
Article

Air bronchogram

Air bronchogram refers to the phenomenon of air-filled bronchi (dark) being made visible by the opacification of surrounding alveoli (grey/white). It is almost always caused by a pathologic airspace/alveolar process, in which something other than air fills the alveoli. Air bronchograms will not ...
Article

Air crescent sign (lung)

An air crescent sign describes the crescent of air that can be seen in invasive aspergillosis, semi-invasive aspergillosis or other processes that cause pulmonary necrosis. It usually heralds recovery and is the result of increased granulocyte activity. In angioinvasive fungal infection, the no...
Article

Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
Article

Carney triad

The Carney triad is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas were included, but subsequent work includes non-functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas 1 gastric ...
Article

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
Article

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational disease (type of pneumoconiosis) caused by exposure to coal dust free of silica (washed coal). Histologically, CWP is classified according to disease severity into simple (presence of coal macules) and complicated (with progressive massive fi...
Article

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects the exocrine function of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and small bowel resulting in progressive disability and multi-system failure. This article is a general discussion of the disease. Each organ system will be discussed ...
Article

Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are a heterogenous group of disorders that are characterised by excess infiltration of eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1: idiopathic: unknown causes secondary: known causes eosinophilic vasculitis: ...
Article

Honeycombing (lungs)

Honeycombing is a CT imaging descriptor referring to clustered cystic air spaces (between 3-10 mm in diameter but occasionally as large as 2.5 cm) which are usually subpleural and basal in distribution. They can be subdivided into: microcystic honeycombing macrocystic honeycombing The walls o...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 7th edition - superseded)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 7th edition lung cancer staging system was proposed in 2010 and has now been updated and superseded by the 8th edition, published in 2016. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) used to be staged di...
Article

Monod sign (lungs)

Monod sign (often misspelt Monad sign) simply describes gas that surrounds a mycetoma (most commonly an aspergilloma) in a pre-existing pulmonary cavity 1-3. It should not be confused with the air crescent sign which is seen in recovering angioinvasive aspergillosis 4. The air crescent sign her...
Article

Pectus excavatum

Pectus excavatum, also known as funnel chest, is a congenital chest wall deformity characterised by concave depression of the sternum, resulting in cosmetic and radiographic alterations. Epidemiology It is the most common chest wall deformity, accounting for approximately 90% of cases, occurs ...
Article

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
Article

Siltzbach sarcoidosis chest radiographic staging system

Siltzbach system is a chest radiographic staging method for sarcoidosis. stage 0: normal chest radigraph: 10% at time of diagnosis stage I: lymph node enlargement: 50% at time of diagnosis stage II: lymph node enlargement and pulmonary opacities: 30% at time of diagnosis stage III: pulmonary...
Article

Water-lily sign (hydatid cyst)

The water-lily sign is seen in hydatid infections when there is detachment of the endocyst membrane which results in floating membranes within the pericyst that mimic the appearance of a water lily. It is classically described on plain radiographs (mainly chest X-ray) when the collapsed membran...
Case

Bronchiectasis

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
62% complete
CT
Article

Pulmonary hamartoma

Pulmonary hamartomas are benign neoplasms composed of cartilage, connective tissue, muscle, fat, and bone. It is one of the most common benign tumours of the lung and accounts for ~8% of all lung neoplasms and 6% of solitary pulmonary nodules. Terminology Pulmonary chondroma has been used inte...
Article

Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: organizing pneumonia (including COP) U: usual interstitial pneumonit...

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