Items tagged “medical student”

156 results found
Article

Extra-axial collection (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Extra-axial collections are collections of fluid within the skull, but outside the brain parenchyma. They may be comprised of CSF, blood or pus and may exist in the extradural, subdural or subarachnoid space.  Reference ar...
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Hydrocephalus (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Hydrocephalus describes the situation where the intracranial ventricular system is enlarged because of increased pressure. It may be caused by obstruction of CSF flow. If this is the case, the location of obstruction can be...
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Midline shift (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Midline shift is a finding described on transverse (axial) slices from CT and MRI studies. It describes the situation where the midline of the intracranial anatomy is no longer in the midline and is the result of pushing or...
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Atelectasis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Atelectasis describes loss of lung volume secondary to collapse. It has many causes, the root of which is bronchial obstruction with absorption of distal gas. Atelectasis may be subsegmental, segmental, lobar, or involve th...
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Pneumothorax (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumothorax describes gas within the pleural space. This may occur because of a number of reasons and may be spontaneous. Patients will not always be symptomatic and treatment will depend on the cause. Pneumothoraces may b...
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Pleural fluid (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pleural fluid describes fluid within the pleural space. Fluid may be simple fluid, pus, hemorrhage and therefore is a broad description that includes, but not synonymous with pleural effusion. Pus in the pleural space may b...
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Air-bronchogram (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Air-bronchograms are gas-filled bronchi surrounded by alveoli filled with fluid, pus or other material. It is a very useful sign because it is highly sensitive and specific for the presence of lung consolidation rather than...
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Increased cardiothoracic ratio (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnificat...
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CVC position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray CVC (central venous catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; for a more in-depth reference article see centr...
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CT chest (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest CT is a computed tomography examination of the thoracic cavity performed for a variety of reasons, from suspected cancer to penetrating chest trauma. A CT chest can be performed with or without IV contrast and when I...
Article

Supracondylar fracture (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Supracondylar fractures are the commonest fracture at the elbow in pediatric patients. They result from force applied across the elbow, usually following a fall. The supracondylar region is the weakest point in the developi...
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Brain mass lesion (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Brain mass lesions are a broad collection of pathological processes that result in changes on brain imaging (usually CT or MRI). They are a very disparate group of conditions ranging from infection (abscess) to brain tumors...
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Cerebral edema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral edema describes the collection of additional fluid within the white matter of the brain. It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic (grey and...
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Intracranial mass effect (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intracranial mass effect describes what happens around a tumor in the brain. It is important to make the distinction between an abnormality that causes mass effect and compresses adjacent structures, and one that does not. ...
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Tuberculosis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Tuberculosis (TB) is a non-bacterial multisystem infection that often affects the lungs. It may be a primary tuberculous infection, secondary infection or appear as chronic scarring. TB may also be seen on a chest x-ray as ...
Article

Bronchiectasis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Bronchiectasis refers to permanent dilatation of the airways secondary to chronic inflammation or infection. It is the common pathological response of bronchi to a variety of congenital and acquired conditions. Reference a...

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