Items tagged “musculoskeletal”

66 results found

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is characterised by periosteal reaction involving the diaphysis and metadiaphysis of the long bones of distal extremities without an underlying bone lesion. Clubbing of the fingers is seen most commonly in patients with lung, liver, and gastrointestinal disorders. W...

Positive metacarpal sign

In the metacarpal sign, a line drawn along the heads of the 4th and 5th metacarpals will intersect the head of the 3rd metacarpal if shortening is present. The shortened 4th metacarpal is the key to the sign. The sign is positive in up to 9.6% of normal individuals 3. It is however seen in a va...


Osteochondromas are a relatively common imaging finding, accounting for 10-15% of all bone tumours and ~35% of all benign bone tumours. Although usually thought of as a benign bone tumour, they may be thought of as a developmental anomaly. They are frequently asymptomatic and have very low malig...

Paget disease (bone)

Paget disease of the bone is a common, chronic bone disorder characterised by excessive abnormal bone remodelling. It frequently affects the pelvis, spine, skull and proximal long bones and has characteristic radiographic features. Epidemiology It is relatively common and can affect up to 4% o...

Parosteal osteosarcoma

Parosteal osteosarcoma is a subtype of osteosarcoma, and arises from the outer layer of the periosteum.  Epidemiology It is the most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma and accounts for ~5% of all osteosarcomas. It typically presents in early adulthood and middle age with a pe...

Tumoral calcinosis

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare familial condition characterised by painless, periarticular masses. The term should be strictly used to refer to a disease caused by a hereditary metabolic dysfunction of phosphate regulation associated with massive periarticular calcinosis and should not be used to ...

Kirner deformity

Kirner deformity is characterised by a curvature of the distal phalynx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at birth. Both sexes are affected, altho...

Acetabular angle

The acetabular angle is a radiographic measurement used when evaluating potential developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).  It is most useful in patients who have started to ossify the epiphysis since ossification diminishes the usefulness of ultrasound. The angle is formed by a horizontal lin...

Morel-Lavallée lesion

A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed degloving injury associated with severe trauma which then presents as a haemolymphatic mass. MRI and ultrasound are useful modalities for evaluation. Terminology The lesions classically occur over the greater trochanter of the femur 1. Morel-Lavallée lesions...


Lipomas are benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumour, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in a...


Acro-osteolysis refers to resorption of the distal phalanx. The terminal tuft is most commonly affected but the shaft of the distal phalanx can also be affected in a few conditions. It is associated with a heterogeneous group of pathological entities and, some of which can be remembered by using...

Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to childhood-onset osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone osteonecrosis 4,5 . Epidemiology It typically presents in the paediatric population (4-6 years of age) and there i...

Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...


Osteoblastomas are rare and benign primary bone tumours. They may be locally aggressive and tend to affect the axial skeleton more often than their histologic relative, osteoid osteoma. Epidemiology They account for 1-3% of all primary bone tumours 2-3. Patients typically present around the se...

Ganglion cyst

Ganglion cysts are non-malignant cystic masses that occur in association with musculoskeletal structures 6. They are sometimes also simply referred to as ganglia or a ganglion, but should not be confused with the anatomical term ganglion. Epidemiology They occur more commonly in young women (e...

Aggressive fibromatosis

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Matt Skalski
Published 06 Jan 2015
80% complete
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