Items tagged “musculoskeletal”

68 results found

Positive metacarpal sign

In the metacarpal sign, a line drawn along the heads of the 4th and 5th metacarpals will intersect the head of the 3rd metacarpal if shortening is present. The shortened 4th metacarpal is the key to the sign. The sign is positive in up to 9.6% of normal individuals 3. It is however seen in a va...


Osteochondromas are a relatively common imaging finding, accounting for 10-15% of all bone tumours and approximately 35% of all benign bone tumours. Although usually thought of as a benign bone tumour, they may be thought of as a developmental anomaly. They are frequently asymptomatic and have v...

Paget disease (bone)

Paget disease of the bone is a common, chronic bone disorder characterised by excessive abnormal bone remodelling. The classically described radiological appearances are expanded bone with a coarsened trabecular pattern. The pelvis, spine, skull, and proximal long bones are most frequently affec...

Parosteal osteosarcoma

Parosteal osteosarcoma is a subtype of osteosarcoma and arises from the outer layer of the periosteum.  Epidemiology It is the most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma and accounts for ~5% of all osteosarcomas. It typically presents in early adulthood and middle age with a pea...

Tumoral calcinosis

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare familial condition characterised by painless, periarticular masses. The term should be strictly used to refer to a disease caused by a hereditary metabolic dysfunction of phosphate regulation associated with massive periarticular calcinosis and should not be used to ...

Kirner deformity

Kirner deformity is characterised by a curvature of the distal phalynx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at birth. Both sexes are affected, altho...

Acetabular angle

The acetabular angle is a radiographic measurement used when evaluating potential developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).  It is most useful in patients who have started to ossify the epiphysis since ossification diminishes the usefulness of ultrasound. The angle is formed by a horizontal lin...

Morel-Lavallée lesion

Morel-Lavallée lesions are closed degloving injuries associated with severe trauma which then present as haemolymphatic masses. MRI and ultrasound are useful modalities for evaluation. Terminology The lesions classically occur over the greater trochanter of the femur 1. Morel-Lavallée lesions,...


Lipomas are benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumour, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in a...

Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to childhood-onset osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone osteonecrosis 4,5 . Epidemiology It typically presents in the paediatric population (4-6 years of age) and there i...

Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...


Osteoblastomas are rare and benign primary bone tumours. They may be locally aggressive and tend to affect the axial skeleton more often than their histologic relative, osteoid osteoma. Epidemiology They account for 1-3% of all primary bone tumours 2,3. Patients typically present around the se...

Ganglion cyst

Ganglion cysts are non-malignant cystic masses that occur in association with musculoskeletal structures. They are the most common soft tissue mass in the hand and wrist.  Terminology Ganglion cysts are sometimes also simply referred to as ganglia or a ganglion, but should not be confused with...

Aggressive fibromatosis

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Matt Skalski
Published 06 Jan 2015
80% complete
X-rayMRIAnnotated image

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

Axial bone window...
 Diagnosis probable
Dr Skúli Óskar Kim
Published 11 Nov 2014
74% complete

Sarcoidosis - osseous involvement

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Matt Skalski
Published 19 Nov 2014
75% complete

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