Items tagged “musculoskeletal”

44 results found
Article

Positive metacarpal sign

In the metacarpal sign, a line drawn along the heads of the 4th and 5th metacarpals will intersect the head of the 3rd metacarpal if shortening is present. The shortened 4th metacarpal is the key to the sign. The sign is positive in up to 9.6% of normal individuals 3. It is however seen in a va...
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Osteochondroma

Osteochondromas are a relatively common imaging finding, accounting for 10-15% of all bone tumors and approximately 35% of all benign bone tumors. Although usually thought of as a benign bone tumor, they may be thought of as a developmental anomaly. They are frequently asymptomatic and have very...
Article

Paget disease (bone)

Paget disease of the bone is a common, chronic bone disorder characterized by excessive abnormal bone remodelling. The classically described radiological appearances are expanded bone with a coarsened trabecular pattern. The pelvis, spine, skull, and proximal long bones are most frequently affec...
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Parosteal osteosarcoma

Parosteal osteosarcoma is a subtype of osteosarcoma and arises from the outer layer of the periosteum.  Epidemiology It is the most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma and accounts for ~5% of all osteosarcomas. It typically presents in early adulthood and middle age with a pea...
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Sacroiliac joint injection

Sacroiliac joint injections can be performed using a posterior approach into the sacroiliac (SI) joint under fluoroscopic or CT guidance. It is often performed bilaterally. Indications diagnostic: relief of pain after injection of local anesthetic therapeutic: to relieve pain from degenerativ...
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Tumoral calcinosis

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare familial condition characterized by painless, periarticular masses. The term should be strictly used to refer to a disease caused by a hereditary metabolic dysfunction of phosphate regulation associated with massive periarticular calcinosis and should not be used to ...
Article

Kirner deformity

Kirner deformity is characterized by a curvature of the distal phalynx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at birth. Both sexes are affected, altho...
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Acetabular angle

The acetabular angle is a radiographic measurement used when evaluating potential developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).  It is most useful in patients who have started to ossify the epiphysis since ossification diminishes the usefulness of ultrasound. The angle is formed by a horizontal lin...
Article

Morel-Lavallée lesion

Morel-Lavallée lesions are closed degloving injuries associated with severe trauma which then present as haemolymphatic masses. MRI and ultrasound are useful modalities for evaluation. Terminology The lesions classically occur over the greater trochanter of the femur 1. Morel-Lavallée lesions,...
Article

Lipoma

Lipomas are benign tumors composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumor, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in adu...
Article

Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to childhood-onset osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone osteonecrosis 4,5 . Epidemiology It typically presents in the pediatric population (4-6 years of age) and there is...
Article

Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...
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Osteoblastoma

Osteoblastomas are rare and benign primary bone tumors. They may be locally aggressive and tend to affect the axial skeleton more often than their histologic relative, osteoid osteoma. Epidemiology They account for 1-3% of all primary bone tumors 2,3. Patients typically present around the seco...
Article

Ganglion cyst

Ganglion cysts are non-malignant cystic masses that occur in association with musculoskeletal structures. They are the most common soft tissue mass in the hand and wrist.  Terminology Ganglion cysts are sometimes also simply referred to as ganglia or a ganglion, but should not be confused with...
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Infrapatellar bursitis

Infrapatellar bursitis (or clergyman knee) occurs with inflammation of bursae around the insertion of the distal patellar tendon. The inflamed bursa may be: superficial/subcutaneous: anterior to the distal patellar tendon deep: posterior to the distal patellar tendon, in the region of the infr...
Article

CLOVES syndrome

CLOVE syndrome is an acronym denoting a rare condition consisting of: Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth Vascular malformations Epidermal nevi Skeletal/Scoliosis/Spinal anomalies Abnormalities have a truncal predominance. Associated findings include: wide feet and hands macrodactyly scoli...
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Arcade of Frohse

The arcade of Frohse (pronounced "\ Frəʊs \" to rhyme with "crows") is also known as the supinator arch. The arcade is formed by a fibrous band between the two heads of the supinator muscle. The deep branch of the radial nerve passes beneath the arcade accompanied by vessels known as the leash ...
Article

Snapping triceps syndrome

Snapping triceps syndrome is an uncommon cause of medial elbow pain. It occurs if the triceps insertion subluxates over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension of the elbow, and two palpable "snaps" may be heard or felt during this motion. It may coexist with ulnar nerve dislocation. ...
Article

Ulnar nerve dislocation

Ulnar nerve dislocation is an uncommon cause of pain and paresthesias in the ulnar nerve distribution. It occurs if the ulnar nerve subluxates and then dislocates over the anterior aspect of the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension of the elbow.  Pathology Ulnar nerve dislocation occ...
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Ultrasound of the knee

Ultrasound of the knee allows high-resolution imaging of superficial knee anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of some of the tendons and ligaments. Knee ultrasound is somewhat limited compared with ultrasound examinations of other joints because the cruciate ligaments and th...

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