Items tagged “neuroanatomy”

104 results found

Betz cells

Betz cells are pyramidal cell neurons located within the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex. They are some of the largest in the central nervous system, sometimes reaching 100 µm in diameter and send their axons down the corticospinal tracts to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.  ...

Ependymitis granularis

Ependymitis Granu...
 Diagnosis certain
Dr Paul Smith
Published 30 Sep 2010
77% complete

Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sul...

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...

Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) are the terminal branches of the basilar artery and supply the occipital lobes and posteromedial temporal lobes. Summary origin: terminal branches of the basilar artery course: from basilar towards occiput main branches posterior communicating artery m...

Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...

Basilar artery fenestration

Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery. Its reported prevalence is highly variable depending on the technique used: ~0.5% (0.3-0.6%) at angiography (presumably ...

Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses

The persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are named, with the exception of the proatlantal artery, using the cranial nerves with which they run: persistent trigeminal artery arises from proximal cavernous ICA most common persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis two types - lat...

Basilar artery

The basilar artery is part of the posterior cerebral circulation. It artery arises from the confluence of the left and right vertebral arteries at the base of the pons as they rise towards the base of the brain. Summary origin: vertebral artery confluence course: ventral to pons in the pontin...

Posterior communicating artery

The posterior communicating artery (PCOM or P Comm) makes up the posterior linkage in the circle of Willis. Gross anatomy Course The PCOM originates from the posterior aspect of the C7 (communicating) segment of the internal carotid artery and extends posteriormedially to anastomose with the ...

Superior cerebellar artery

The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises from the distal basilar artery, just below the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and typically supplies: whole superior surface of the cerebellar hemispheres down to the great horizontal fissure superior vermis dentate nucleus most of the cerebellar ...


The pons is the middle of the three parts of the brainstem, sitting above the medulla and below the midbrain. It acts as a relay between the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres.  Gross anatomy The pons has a bulbous shape and has two main components - the ventral pons and the dorsal tegmentum....

Pineal gland

The pineal gland is a small, pine-cone shaped structure considered to be part of the epithalamus. It is unpaired and situated in the midline.  Gross anatomy The pineal gland typically measures around 7 x 6 x 3 mm in size and is situated in a groove between the laterally placed thalamic bodies ...

Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion cavernous sinus portion orbital portion Gross anat...

Aberrant internal carotid artery

Aberrant internal carotid artery is a variant of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and represents a collateral pathway resulting from involution of the normal cervical portion (first embryonic segment) of the ICA 5. There is consequent enlargement of the usually small collaterals which course t...

Arnold's nerve

Arnold's nerve is the auricular branch, also known as the mastoid branch, of the vagus nerve (CN X). Origin and course Arnold's nerve originates from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve and also has a small contribution from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It ascends ...

Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...


The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...

Wormian bones

Wormian bones are a subset of the small intrasutural bones that lie between the cranial sutures formed by the bones of the skull vault. The title Wormian bones is reserved for abnormal intrasutural bones that are typically found around the lambdoid suture. Some consider them abnormal only if gr...

Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein of Trolard connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than both of t...

Updating… Please wait.

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.