Items tagged “neuroanatomy”

104 results found
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Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. It courses from its nucleus located in the dorsal pons to its innervation of the lateral rectus muscle and can be divided into four parts: nucleus and intraparenchymal portion cisternal portion cavernous sinus portion orbital portion Gross anat...
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Aberrant internal carotid artery

Aberrant internal carotid artery is a variant of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and represents a collateral pathway resulting from involution of the normal cervical portion (first embryonic segment) of the ICA 5. There is consequent enlargement of the usually small collaterals which course t...
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Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...
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Arnold's nerve

Arnold's nerve is the auricular branch, also known as the mastoid branch, of the vagus nerve (CN X). Origin and course Arnold's nerve originates from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve and also has a small contribution from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It ascends ...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), or more grammatically correct cavum septi pellucidi, is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology It is sometimes called the fifth ventricle but this term is not in current use as a CSP does not have any direct communic...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant. The CV is sometimes referred to as the 6th ventricle 3.  Gross anatomy The CV is the po...
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Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
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Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...
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Facial nerve

The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic), it has taste and p...
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Meninges

The meninges is a collective term for the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Please see the separate article for further details: cerebral meninges spinal meninges  
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Arachnoid granulation

Arachnoid granulations, also known as a Pacchionian granulation, are projections of the arachnoid membrane (villi) into the dural sinuses that allow CSF entrance from the subarachnoid space into the venous system. They most frequently occur in a parasagittal location with the transverse and sup...
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Basilar artery

The basilar artery is part of the posterior cerebral circulation. It artery arises from the confluence of the left and right vertebral arteries at the base of the pons as they rise towards the base of the brain. Summary origin: vertebral artery confluence course: ventral to pons in the pontin...
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Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the brain. The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery), coursing laterally into the lateral sul...
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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is connected above and in front with the cerebral hemispheres; behind with the mid-brain. Its upper surface is concealed by the corpus callosum, and is covered by a fold of pia mater, named the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle; inferiorly it reaches to the base of the brai...
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Mega cisterna magna

Mega cisterna magna refers to a normal variant characterised by a truly focal enlargement of the subarachnoid space in the inferior and posterior portions of the posterior fossa. It is an incidental finding on neuroimaging, and no imaging follow up is necessary.  Epidemiology A mega cisterna m...
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Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest of the commissural fibres, linking the cerebral cortex of the left and right cerebral hemisphere. It is the largest fibre pathway in the brain. Gross anatomy The corpus callosum is approximately 10 cm in length and is C-shaped, like most of the supratent...
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Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein (or vein of Trolard) connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than...
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Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (19...
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Betz cells

Betz cells are pyramidal cell neurons located within the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex. They are some of the largest in the central nervous system, sometimes reaching 100 µm in diameter and send their axons down the corticospinal tracts to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.  ...
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Rathke pouch

Rathke pouch, also known as hypophyseal diverticulum, is an ectodermal outpouching of stomodeum (primitive oral cavity lined by ectoderm) which forms at approximately 3-4 weeks gestation and goes on to form the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. Gross anatomy The anterior wall of the pouc...

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