Items tagged “neuroradiology”

175 results found
Article

Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is a congenital genetic disorder resulting in rhizomelic dwarfism and is the most common skeletal dysplasia. It has numerous distinctive radiographic features.  Epidemiology It occurs due to sporadic mutations in the majority of cases but can be inherited as an autosomal dominan...
Article

Asymmetrically large jugular bulb

Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology. The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people. A normal but large bulb will have...
Article

Baastrup syndrome

Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.  Epidemiology It tend...
Article

Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ~17 ...
Article

Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumours of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumours and 4% of all primary bone tumours.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the c...
Article

Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the cerebrum or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foramina rather than through the spine. The cranial nerves are numbered one to twelve using the Roman numerals, I to XII. Cerebrum The first and se...
Article

Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space resulting in compression of the thecal sac. In severe cases, compression may be symptomatic. The lumbar region is most frequently affected. Epidemiology The demographics of affected individuals ref...
Article

Intracranial hypotension

Intracranial hypotension, also known as craniospinal hypotension is defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure <7 cm H2O in patients with clinical presentation compatible with intracranial hypotension, namely, postural headache, nausea, vomiting, neck pain, visual and hearing disturbances, an...
Article

Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
Article

Jugular spine

The jugular spine is a small sharp bony ledge which separates the two parts of the jugular foramen - pars nervosa anteriorly and pars vascularis posteriorly. It is an important landmark, as masses of the jugular foramen (e.g. glomus jugulare) will erode this spine, helping distinguish them from ...
Article

Meningioma

Meningiomas are extra-axial tumours and represent the most common tumour of the meninges. They are a non-glial neoplasm that originates from the meningocytes or arachnoid cap cells of the meninges, and are located anywhere that meninges are found, and in some places where only rest cells are pre...
Article

Congenital spinal meningocele

Congenital spinal meningoceles are developmental anomalies of meningothelial elements displaced into the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Please refer on menigocele article for a broad overview of all types of this condition.  Pathology It is defect of the neural tube, an embryonic structure th...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
Article

Stiff person syndrome

Stiff person syndrome, previously known as stiff man syndrome, was first described in 1956 by Moersch and Woltman of Mayo Clinic 1 and is a very rare neuromuscular disease characterised by: progressive muscle stiffness of the spine and lower extremities muscle spasms triggered by external stim...
Article

Sugar coating

The so-called "sugar coating" or zuckerguss (German for sugar icing) is seen in post-contrast images of the brain and spinal cord in patients with leptomeningeal drop metastases or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. It is seen both as a result of CNS involvement from distant primaries as well as dir...
Case

Foraminal lumbar disc protrusion

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
74% complete
MRI
Case

Multiple sclerosis of the spine

Multiple lesions ...
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
62% complete
MRI
Article

Lipoma of the filum terminale

Fatty filum terminale, also known as lipoma of the filum terminale or filar lipoma, is a relatively common finding on imaging of the lumbar spine, and in most cases is an incidental finding of no clinical concern. However, in some patients it may be associated with signs and symptoms of tethered...
Case

Epidural abscess of the cervical spine

 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 21 Jun 2008
74% complete
MRI
Case

Spine metastasis with compression

Axial T2
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 13 Jul 2008
71% complete
MRI

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