Items tagged “neuroradiology”

180 results found
Article

Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is a congenital genetic disorder resulting in rhizomelic dwarfism and is the most common skeletal dysplasia. It has numerous distinctive radiographic features.  Epidemiology It occurs due to sporadic mutations in the majority of cases but can be inherited as an autosomal dominan...
Article

Asymmetrically large jugular bulb

Asymmetrically large jugular bulbs are entirely normal and asymptomatic; its only significance is to distinguish it from pathology. The size of the jugular bulbs is variable, with the right side being significantly larger than the left in two-thirds of people. A normal but large bulb will have...
Article

Baastrup syndrome

Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.  Epidemiology It tend...
Article

Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ~17 ...
Article

Chordoma

Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumours that account for 1% of intracranial tumours and 4% of all primary bone tumours.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the coccyx). Since chordomas arise in ...
Article

Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the brain or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foraminae rather than through the spine.  Cerebrum The first and second cranial nerves derive from the telencephalon and diencephalon respectively and...
Article

Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space, typically in the lumbar region, such that the thecal sac is compressed, and in some instances results in compressive symptoms.  Epidemiology Demographic of affected individuals reflects the underl...
Article

Intracranial hypotension

Intracranial hypotension, also known as craniospinal hypotension is defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure <7 cm H2O in patients with clinical presentation compatible with intracranial hypotension, which are postural headache, nausea, vomiting, neck pain, visual and hearing disturbances, ...
Article

Iodophenylundecylic acid

Iodophenylundecylic acid (brand name = Myodil (Glaxo)) is an oily organic iodinated contrast material which was used for myelography. It is no longer used. Residual contrast remains for years. Has been implicated in development of arachnoiditis, perhapse of the order of 1%. See also pantopaque
Article

Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...
Article

Jugular spine

The jugular spine is a small sharp bony ledge which separates the two parts of the jugular foramen - pars nervosa anteriorly and pars vascularis posteriorly. It is an important landmark, as masses of the jugular foramen (e.g. glomus jugulare) will erode this spine, helping distinguish them from ...
Article

Leptomeningeal metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases, also know as carcinomatous meningitis, refers to the spread of malignant cells through the CSF space. These cells can be originated both in primary CNS tumours (e.g. drop-metastases), as well as from distant tumours that have metastasised (haematogenous spread). This ...
Article

Meningioma

Meningiomas are extra-axial tumours and represent the most common tumour of the meninges. They are a non-glial neoplasm that originates from the meningocytes or arachnoid cap cells of the meninges, and are located anywhere that meninges are found, and in some places where only rest cells are pre...
Article

Congenital spinal meningocoele

Congenital spinal meningocoeles are developmental anomalies of meningothelial elements displaced into the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Please refer on menigocoele article for a broad overview of all types of this condition.  Pathology It is defect of the neural tube, an embryonic structure ...
Article

Myelitis

Myelitis, is a collective term simply referring to any inflammation of the spinal cord. It is a form of myelopathy. The two major sub types include: leukomyelitis multiple sclerosis ADEM transverse myelitis ideopathic transverse myelitis secondary transverse myelitis: viral, syphillis 2, ...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification, based on the ratio of [overhanging part of the superior vertebral body] to [anteroposterior length of the adjacent inferior vertebral body]:  grade I: 0-25% grade II: 26-50%  grade III: 51-75%  grade IV: ...
Article

Stiff person syndrome

Stiff person syndrome, previously known as stiff man syndrome, was first described in 1956 by Moersch and Woltman of Mayo Clinic 1 and is a very rare neuromuscular disease characterised by: progressive muscle stiffness of the spine and lower extremities muscle spasms triggered by external stim...
Article

Sugar coating

The so-called "sugar coating" or zuckerguss (German for sugar icing) is seen in post-contrast images of the brain and spinal cord in patients with leptomeningeal drop metastases or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. It is seen both as a result of CNS involvement from distant primaries as well as dir...
Case

Foraminal lumbar disc protrusion

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
74% complete
MRI
Case

Multiple sclerosis of the spine

Multiple lesions ...
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
65% complete
MRI

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