Items tagged “nuclear medicine”

38 results found
Article

Superscan

Superscan is intense symmetric activity in the bones with diminished renal and soft tissue activity on a Tc99m diphosphonate bone scan. This appearance can result from a range of etiological factors: diffuse metastatic disease prostatic carcinoma breast cancer transitional cell carcinoma (T...
Article

Pelviureteric junction obstruction

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephrosi...
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Graves disease

Graves disease (in mainland Europe it is called Basedow disease 9) is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (up to 85%). Epidemiology There is a strong female predilection with an F:M ratio of at least 5:1. It typically presents in middle age. Clinical p...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. A radiopharmaceutical labeled with 99mTc constitutes a coordination complex in which ligands bond to a central atom of 99mTc by coordinate covalent bonds 4 . The radioactive techne...
Article

Radiopharmaceuticals

Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs that are bound to radioactive substances.  The pharmaceutically active portion determines the activity that will be measured and the radioactive portion emits radiation that can be measured by the scanner. A number of radiopharmaceuticals are used in human imaging...
Article

Tc-99m sulfur colloid

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life normal distribution: liver: 85% spleen: 10% bone marrow: 5% excretion: hepatic target organ: liver, spleen pharmacokinet...
Article

Xenon-133

Xenon-133 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. Inhalation of this gas can also be used to assess cerebral blood flow. photon energy: 81 KeV physical half-life: 5.27 days biological half-life: 30 seconds normal distribution: lungs <15% of inhaled gas is absorb...
Article

Iodine-123

Iodine-123 (I123 or I-123) is a radioisotope of the element iodine (atomic number 53) used in nuclear medicine imaging including to scan the thyroid gland.  Uses, dosages, and time of Imaging standard scan: 3.7-14.8 MBq (100-400 μCi) PO, image at 4-6 or 24 hours thyroid cancer scan: 55.5 MBq ...
Article

Thyroid scan (I-123)

Thyroid scan (thyroid scintigraphy) is a nuclear medicine examination used to evaluate thyroid tissue.  Clinical indications functional status of a thyroid nodule thyrotoxicosis: differential diagnosis thyroid cancer whole body scan for distant metastases estimation of local residual thyro...
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Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in pediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to the...
Article

Tc-99m DTPA

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging and primarily used to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life: 2.5 hours normal di...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics: uptake by tubular secretion (9...
Article

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate (Na+ 99mTc O4-) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Technetium (99mTc) has eight oxidation states 6, from -1 to +7; specifically, the oxidation state of technetium in the pertechnetate anion (99mTcO4-) is +7....
Article

Thyroid scan (Tc-99m)

Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan is a functional nuclear medicine study used to assess the thyroid gland. Technique patient preparation fast for 4 hours prior to exam radiopharmaceutical Tc-99m pertechnetate dose and route of administration 111-185 MBq (3-5 mCi) IV  time of imaging 20 ...
Article

Tc-99m HMPAO labeled WBC

Tc-99m HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) labeled WBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in WBC imaging. There are three potential radiochemical impurities in the 99mTc-HMPAO: a hydrophilic secondary complex, the free pertechnetate and the reduced 99mTc-hydrolyzate. 1The min...
Article

Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (macroaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90% p...
Article

Tc-99m labeled RBC

Tc-99m labeled RBC is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in the assessment of GI bleeding. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life:  normal distribution: heart, vessels, spleen miscellaneous facts: threshold for detection is 0.0...
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi (also known as sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart (myocardium) excretion: hepatobiliary and renal target organ:...
Article

Tc-99m DTPA (aerosol)

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) (aerosol) is one of the technetium agents and is used in VQ imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 1 hour normal distribution: lungs pharmacokinetics: aerosol deposited in bronhoal...

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