Items tagged “obstetrics”

34 results found
Article

Crown rump length

Crown rump length (CRL) is the length of the embryo or fetus from the top of its head to bottom of torso. It is the most accurate estimation of gestational age in early pregnancy, because there is little biological variability at that time. Measurement CRL is measured as the largest dimension ...
Article

Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
Article

Interstitial line sign

The interstitial line sign is an ultrasound finding in interstitial ectopic pregnancy. It is an echogenic line from the mass to the endometrial echo complex. Reportedly it has high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (98%).
Article

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is a finding during a specific period in the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks) and should not be confused with the nuchal thickness, which is measured in the second trimester. Pathology Increased nuchal translucency is thought to be related t...
Article

Tubal ectopic pregnancy

Tubal ectopic pregnancy (or adnexal ectopic pregnancy) is the most common location of an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology It is the most common type of ectopic by far, accounting for 93-97% of cases. Pathology Although the fallopian tube has many anatomical parts, for the purposes of ectopic ...
Article

Twin-peak sign (twin pregancy)

The twin peak sign (also known as the lambda (λ) sign) is a triangular appearance of the chorion insinuating between the layers of the inter twin membrane and strongly suggests a dichorionic twin pregnancy. It is best seen in the first trimester (between 10-14 weeks). 5 While the presence of a t...
Article

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
Article

Missed miscarriage

A missed miscarriage, sometimes termed a missed abortion 3, is a situation when there is a non-viable fetus within the uterus, without symptoms of a miscarriage.   Radiographic features Ultrasound Ultrasound diagnosis of miscarriage should only be considered when either a mean gestation sac d...
Article

Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1-5% of all pregnancies (routine vaginal deliveries 12).  Acc...
Case

Clinodactyly (isolated)

Clinodactyly, rig...
 Diagnosis almost certain
Brendan Cullinane
Published 21 Jan 2011
69% complete
Ultrasound
Case

Ventricular septal defects - isolated

Case A: large VSD...
 Diagnosis certain
Brendan Cullinane
Published 21 Jan 2011
79% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Antenatal soft markers on ultrasound

Antenatal soft ultrasound markers are fetal sonographic findings that are generally not abnormalities as such but are indicative of an increased age adjusted risk of an underlying fetal aneuploidic or some non chromosomal abnormalities. Most of the described features do not constitute a structu...
Article

Fetal tachycardia

Fetal tachycardia is an abnormal increase in the fetal heart rate. It is variably defined as a heart rate above 160-180 beats per minute (bpm) and typically ranges between 170-220 bpm (higher rates can occur with tachyarrhythmias). Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~0.4-1% of pregnancie...
Article

Subchorionic haemorrhage

Subchorionic haemorrhage (SCH) occurs when there is perigestational haemorrhage and blood collects between the uterine wall and the chorionic membrane in pregnancy. It is a frequent cause of first and second trimester bleeding. Epidemiology It typically occurs within the first 20 weeks of gest...
Article

Fetal bradycardia

Fetal bradycardia refers to an abnormally low fetal heart rate, a potentially ominous finding. A sustained first trimester heart rate below 100 beats per minute (bpm) is generally considered bradycardic. The average fetal heart rate changes during pregnancy, however, and some consider the lower ...
Article

Placental venous lakes

Placental venous lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, b...
Article

Absent umbilical arterial end-diastolic flow

Absent end-diastolic flow (AEDF) in an umbilical artery Doppler assessment is a useful feature which indicates underlying fetal vascular stress if detected in mid or late pregnancy. It is often classified as Class II in severity in abnormal umbilical arterial Dopplers 9. Pathology The presence...
Article

Anhydramnios

Anhydramnios is a term where there is a complete or near-complete lack of amniotic fluid (sometimes referred to as "liquor volume"). Pathology Anhydramnios can result in a number of situations: fetal renal tract anomalies Potter syndrome (bilateral renal agenesis): most common  large ureter...
Article

Pregnancy of unknown location

The term pregnancy of unknown location is assigned when neither an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) or an ectopic pregnancy is identified on transvaginal ultrasound in the context of a positive pregnancy test. Clinical presentation pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding positive pregnancy test Pathology ...
Case

Chorionic bump

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Matt A. Morgan
Published 09 Dec 2014
75% complete
Ultrasound

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.