Items tagged “oesophagus”

40 results found
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Achalasia

Achalasia (primary achalasia) is a failure of organized esophageal peristalsis that causes impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, resulting in food stasis and often marked dilatation of the esophagus.  Obstruction of the distal esophagus from other non-functional etiologies, not...
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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterized by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement. Mutations in more than 20 different genes have been reported that contribute to the disease's...
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Feline esophagus

Feline esophagus also known as esophageal shiver, refers to the transient transverse bands seen in the mid and lower esophagus on a double-contrast barium swallow. Pathology The appearance is almost always associated with active gastro-esophageal reflux 2,3 and is thought to be due to contract...
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Esophageal web

Esophageal webs refer to an esophageal constriction caused by a thin mucosal membrane projecting into the lumen. Epidemiology Esophageal webs tend to affect middle-aged females. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic and the finding may be incidental and unimportant. However...
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Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is globally the 7th most common cancer and 6th most common cause of cancer-related death as per NCCN version 3.2023. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the eso...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in th...
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Esophageal stricture

Esophageal stricture refers to any persistent intrinsic narrowing of the esophagus.  Terminology The term peptic stricture refers specifically to those benign esophageal strictures caused by chronic acid reflux, although some - incorrectly - use it more loosely to refer to any benign esophagea...
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Gastro-esophageal junction

The gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) (also known as the esophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the esophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GEJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the esophagus slides in and ...
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Gastro-esophageal reflux disease

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), often shortened to reflux disease, is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus across the lower esophageal sphincter. Epidemiology It affects 10% to 20% of the adult population in ...
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Schatzki ring

A Schatzki ring, also called a Schatzki-Gary ring, is a symptomatic, narrow esophageal B-ring occurring in the distal esophagus and usually associated with a hiatus hernia.  Epidemiology Relatively common, lower esophageal rings are found in ~6-14% of oesophagrams 9.  Associations More than ...
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Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
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Esophageal atresia (classification)

Esophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-esophageal fistula and can be divided into1: type A: isolated esophageal atresia (8%) type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%) type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%) type D: double fistula with intervening atresia (1%) ty...
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Feingold syndrome

Feingold syndrome is characterized by the combination of: microcephaly digital abnormalities alimentary tract atresias especially esophageal atresia
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Scleroderma (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations of scleroderma can occur in up to 90% of patients with scleroderma 2 with the most common site of gastrointestinal involvement being the esophagus. After skin changes and Raynaud phenomenon, gastrointestinal changes are the third most common manifestation of scler...
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Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Plummer-Vinson syndrome, also known as the Paterson-Brown Kelly syndrome, is a very rare condition which comprises a classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia and upper esophageal webs. Epidemiology The incidence of Plummer-Vinson syndrome has plummeted in the past fifty years and thi...
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Esophageal leiomyomatosis

Esophageal leiomyomatosis is rare benign condition. Epidemiology It usually presents at childhood. There is a recognized increased female predilection. Pathology It is considered a hamartomatous condition and is associated with abnormal diffuse proliferation of smooth muscle fibers in distal...
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Esophageal pseudodiverticulosis

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is an uncommon condition in which there are numerous small outpouchings within the esophageal wall. Epidemiology It is a rare condition, found in <1% of esophagograms. It may occur at any age, but is more common between 50 and 70 years. There is a sli...
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Esophageal duplication

Duplication of the esophagus has a range of macroscopic appearances from complete (very rare) to partial cystic duplication (esophageal duplication cyst). It is the second most common gastrointestinal tract duplication after that of the ileum. Epidemiology A complete duplication is a rare malf...
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Boerhaave syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome refers to an esophageal rupture secondary to forceful vomiting and retching. Epidemiology It tends to be more prevalent in males, with alcoholism a risk factor. The estimated incidence is ~ 1:6000. Clinical presentation They are often associated with the clinical triad (Ma...
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Hypercontracting (nutcracker) esophagus

Hypercontracting (nutcracker) esophagus is a motility disorder of the esophagus. This condition is primarily diagnosed with manometry with high intra-esophageal pressure and normal peristalsis. Most patients will have a normal barium swallow.  Hypercontracting esophagus ("nutcracker esophagus")...