Items tagged “oncology”

447 results found

Kimura disease

Kimura disease, also known as eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma, is a rare benign inflammatory disease that characteristically manifests as enlargement of cervical lymph nodes and salivary glands. Epidemiology Kimura disease typically affects males (80%) between 20 and 40 years of age ...

Laryngeal carcinoma (staging)

Laryngeal carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic larynx. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial tumors are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published ...

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic intracranial metastases is: MR CT BB MR CT HBO Mnemonic MR CT BB M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma   MR CT HBO M: melano...

Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the esophagus. Epidemiology Esophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% of a...

Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...

Pineal cyst

Pineal cysts are common, usually asymptomatic, and typically found incidentally. Their importance is mainly in the fact that they cannot be distinguished from cystic tumors, especially when large or when atypical features are present. As such, many patients undergo prolonged follow-up for these ...

Hepatic abscess

Hepatic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localized collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic, or fungal agents.  Epidemiology The frequency of individual infective agents as causes of liver abscesses are intimately linked to the demographics of the affe...

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytomas are relatively benign renal tumors. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...

Oral cavity carcinoma (staging)

Oral cavity carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the oral cavity. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial and minor salivary gland cancers are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by th...

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula and king's evil, continues to be seen in endemic areas and in the industrialised world particularly among the immunocompromised. Epidemiology Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of extrapulmonary tubercu...

Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumor). Nomenclature of such enlarged col...

Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of mature new bone adjacent to the cortex. It denotes a longstanding pathological process. Differential diagnosis osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteosarcoma chondrosa...

Stipple sign (transitional cell carcinoma)

The stipple sign refers to the pointillistic end-on appearance on intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography of contrast material tracking into the interstices of a papillary lesion. Because the majority of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) have a papillary configuration, the presence of...


A superscan is intense activity in the bones causing diminished renal and soft tissue activity on a Tc-99m diphosphonate bone scan. Pathology Etiology This appearance can result from a range of causes: diffuse metastatic disease prostatic carcinoma breast cancer transitional cell carcinom...

TNM staging system

The TNM staging system (officially known as the TNM classification system of malignant tumors) is a cancer staging system overseen and published by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) publishes the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual which is b...

Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic/colloid nodule/nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroid ly...

Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thyroid, esophagus and larynx) distant metastasis (e.g. melanoma, breast, renal, and colon cancer)  primary neoplasms squamous cell carcinoma: commone...


Typhlitis, also called cecitis or neutropenic colitis, is a necrotizing inflammatory condition which typically involves the cecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon, appendix or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukemia and severe neu...

Wilms tumor (staging)

Wilms' tumor staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumor. Where there is invasion or metastasizes, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumor, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II local ...

Cerebral metastasis - Bull's eye sign

 Diagnosis almost certain
Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
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