Items tagged “oncology”
476 results found
Bull's eye sign (from cerebral metastasis)
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 07 May 2008
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), also known as uraemic osteopathy, is the constellation of musculoskeletal abnormalities that occur in patients with chronic renal failure, due to concurrent and superimposed: osteomalacia (adults) / rickets (children) secondary hyperparathyroidism: abnormal calcium ...
Pelvic masses in females
Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Bilateral testicular lesions
Bilateral testicular lesions have a relatively limited differential diagnosis. Neoplastic lymphoblastic leukemia (acute or chronic) lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's) primary testicular lymphoma is rare but the testes are often the site of lymphoma/leukemia recurrence due to the chemoptherapy inabil...
Pedunculated intratracheal mass
A predunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation t...
Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes (or cells that derive from melanocytes). Melanocytes predominantly occur in the basal layer of the epidermis and most melanomas, therefore, arise in the skin. However, melanocytes do occur in other locations and can give r...
Asbestosis refers to later development of diffuse interstitial fibrosis secondary to asbestos fibre inhalation and should not be confused with other asbestos related diseases. Epidemiology Asbestosis typically occurs 10-15 years following the commencement of exposure to asbestos and is dose re...
Published 01 Jan 2009
Chondrosarcoma - low grade - nasal septum
Published 14 Jan 2009
Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison's disease patients only occasionally have calcification. Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abdo...
Duodenal filling defects
Duodenal filling defects may be caused by a wide variety of duodenal pathology which may be divided by their location and pathological process. Extrinsic gallbladder impression common bile duct impression gas-filled diverticulum Intrinsic Note: please refer to duodenal mucosal nodular fill...
Apical post-radiotheraphy change
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 23 Aug 2009
Focal fatty sparing of the liver
Focal fatty sparing of the liver is a localised absence of fatty change in a liver otherwise, affects with fatty change (diffuse hepatic steatosis). Recognition of this finding is useful to prevent falsely thinking the region is a mass. Epidemiology To be added Pathology Similar to its inver...
Bethesda criteria of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer
The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Diagnosis of HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled: Amsterdam criteria are met 2 or more HNPCC related malignancies pa...
Small bowel lymphoma
Lymphoma of the small bowel is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread syst...
Osteopoikilosis is a sclerosing bony dysplasia characterised by multiple benign enostoses. It is a rare inherited benign condition incidentally found on skeletal x-rays. Its importance is predominantly in correct diagnosis so that it is not mistaken for pathology. Epidemiology The bone islands...
CNS capillary telangiectasia
CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain. Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their incidenc...
Published 17 Jan 2010
There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
Solitary sclerotic bone lesion
The differential diagnosis of a solitary sclerotic bone lesion is heavily influenced by the age of the patient, and includes: sclerotic metastasis when solitary may be the only one visible of many or the only one imaged enostosis (bone island) osteosarcoma calcifying enchondroma osteoblast...