Items tagged “oncology”
471 results found
Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (staging)
Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system. TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) T1: limited to 1 subsite AND tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension T2: extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or tumour size betw...
Optic nerve sheath meningioma
Optic nerve meningiomas are benign tumours arising from the arachnoid cap cells of the optic nerve sheath, and represent ~20% of all orbital meningiomas, the majority of which are direct extensions from intracranial meningiomas. These tumours typically appear as masses within the optic nerve, ...
Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
Leptomeningeal enhancement refers to a diffuse or focal gyriform or serpentine enhancement that can be seen in the following conditions: Diffuse meningitis pyogenic meningitis viral meningitis tuberculous meningitis (can also be focal) CNS cryptococcal infection coccidioidal meningitis (c...
Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 26 May 2010
Synonyms, located below references when in edit mode, are used in a number of scenarios. To view a YouTube screencast tutorial please click here. What is a synonym? A synonym is essentially a 'redirect' to an article. This enables links created to article A to pass to article B, provided ar...
Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS)
BI-RADS classification is proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR), last updated in November 2015, and is a widely used classification system at the time of writing this article (July 2016). The BI-RADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely acc...
Differential diagnosis for a focal gas collection in the right upper quadrant
A gas filled focal collection in the right upper upper quadrant on plain film can occur from a number of pathologies. Things to consider are entero biliary fistula : common types include cholecysto-duodenal fistula and cholecysto-colic fistula and. Can occur with gallstone ileus (majority of ...
Published 19 Jun 2010
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), also sometimes more vaguely referred to as "adult polycystic kidney disease", is as the name would suggest, a hereditary form of adult cystic renal disease. Epidemiology Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is one of the most commo...
Insulinoma (MEN type 1)
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 12 Aug 2010
Orbital pathology covers a variety of diverse diseases that affect the orbit. The complicating factor is that the orbit is composed of a large number of different tissues which each have a plethora of pathologies that can affect them. Classification For simplification, they can be separated i...
Parotid enlargement (also known as parotidomegaly) has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative, and congenital c...
Pharyngeal mucosal space
The pharyngeal (or superficial) mucosal space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. It consists of the mucosa and structures deep to the mucosa of the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. Gross anatomy The pharyngeal mucosal space is the most internal comp...
Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
Human alpha fetoprotein (AFP) elevation may occur in a vast number of conditions: liver tumours (hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma) <10 ng/ml is within normal limits >20 ng/ml is above normal limits but has low specificity for tumour since it may occur in a setting of diffuse liver inj...
Sigmoidorectal intussusception caused by adenocarcinoma
Published 05 Sep 2010
Adult cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)
Cervical lymphadenopathy in an adult can result from a vast number of conditions. They include: malignancy metastases from head and neck tumours lymphoma other neoplastic lesions Castleman disease Kaposi sarcoma infection bacterial infection viral infection Epstein-Barr virus herpes...
An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a mass lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal a...