Items tagged “ophthalmology”

21 results found
Article

Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumour and nonspecific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
Article

Adie syndrome

Adie syndrome consists of a classic triad of: diaphoresis absent deep tendon reflexes, e.g. ankle jerk an Adie pupil: tonically dilated and responds poorly or not at all to light It is thought to result from damage to the ciliary ganglion and the dorsal root ganglion by viral or bacterial in...
Article

Extra-ocular muscles

The extra-ocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements: superior rectus: elevation superior oblique: intorsion medial rectus: adduction lateral rectus: abduction inferior oblique: extorsion inferior rectus: depression Innervation oculomotor ...
Article

Ocular metastasis

Ocular metastases, also termed uveal metastases, account for over 80% of all ocular pathology, and need to be distinguished from extraocular metastasis, which are a quite different group of tumours. This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting the orbits. For other intracranial metast...
Article

Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
Article

Proptosis

Proptosis refers to forward protrusion of the globe with respect to the orbit. There are many causes of proptosis which can be divided according to location and it is worth remembering that it is not just orbital disease processes that cause proptosis. Terminology Exophthalmos also describes f...
Case

Intraconal extra-ocular malignant melanoma metastasis

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Jan Frank Gerstenmaier
Published 22 Mar 2013
83% complete
CT
Case

Globe rupture (anterior chamber)

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Dalia Ibrahim
Published 28 Mar 2014
62% complete
CT
Article

Optic neuropathy

Optic neuropathy is a vague catch-all term, and can result form a variety of causes including: genetic Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy compression / trauma optic nerve sheath meningioma progressive diaphyseal dysplasia shear injury infiltration / neoplasm lymphoma paraneoplastic co...
Article

Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis merely denotes inflammation of the optic nerve and is one of the more common causes of optic neuropathy.  It can be thought of as broadly divided into infectious and noninfectious causes, although the latter is far more frequent.  On imaging, optic neuritis is most easily identifi...
Case

Orbital floor fracture with ruptured globe

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Smita Deb
Published 16 Jan 2015
95% complete
CT
Article

Scleritis

Scleritis refers to inflammation of the sclera. It has a wide range of causes. Epidemiology It can affect age group but usually those between ages 30 and 50 years. There is a recognised increased female predilection (F:M of ~2:1). Pathology Information on the pathogenesis of scleritis is lim...
Article

Enlarged extraocular muscles (differential)

There is a short list of causes for enlarged extraocular muscles: thyroid associated orbitopathy lymphoma orbital pseudotumour sarcoidosis metastases amyloidosis (very rare) 2
Case

Choroidal nevus

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Wen Jak Ma
Published 27 May 2016
75% complete
Ultrasound
Case

Scleral buckle surgery

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Henry Knipe
Published 19 Jan 2017
86% complete
CT
Article

Endophthalmitis

Endophthalmitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition that involves intraocular inflammation of any cause. It is distinguished from panopthalmitis in that is does not extend beyond the sclera. It is either infectious or noninfectious in aetiology, but in clinical practice, intraocular inf...
Article

Adie pupil

Adie pupil (also known as tonic pupil) is caused by idiopathic degeneration of the ciliary ganglion, which sometimes occurs following a viral or bacterial illness. It is usually unilateral and typically affects young females 1. Adie pupil represents a large dilated "tonic pupil", which does not...
Article

Senile calcific scleral plaques

Senile calcific scleral plaques, also known as senile scleral plaques (SSP), are benign scleral degenerations common in elderly individuals. They are a common incidental finding on CT imaging. Epidemiology The prevalence of SSP increases with age, from ~2.5% at age 60, to 25% at age 80 years a...
Article

Scleromalacia perforans

Scleromalacia perforans (or non-inflammatory necrotising scleritis) is a severe and very rare form of scleritis. Epidemiology Associations rheumatoid arthritis Crohn disease ulcerative colitis systemic lupus erythematosus Behçet disease 5 relapsing polychondritis 5 granulomatosis with p...
Article

Trochlear nerve palsy

Trochlear nerve palsies result in weakness of the superior oblique muscle. Clinical presentation Acute onset of vertical diplopia in the absence of ptosis, combined with a characteristic head posturing strongly suggestive of trochlear nerve palsy. The Parks-Bielschowsky 3-step test is useful t...

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