Items tagged “ophthalmology”

39 results found
Article

Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumor and non-specific orbital inflammation (NSOI), is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal glan...
Article

Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is a detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying pigmented choroid. Apposition of the retinal pigmented epithelium to the overlying retina is essential for normal retinal function. Terminology There are numerous subtypes of retinal detachment 5: rhegmatogenous...
Article

Adie syndrome

Adie syndrome, also known as Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder. Epidemiology Adie syndrome is a rare condition that is most commonly seen in young females in their fourth decade of life 2,3. Clinical presentation Patients most commonly present with a classic triad of: di...
Case

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy - retinal detachment

 Diagnosis almost certain
Paresh K Desai
Published 21 Aug 2009
60% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Exudative retinitis

Exudative retinitis, also known as retinal telangiectasis or Coats disease, is a rare congenital disease affecting the eyes and is a cause of leukocoria. Epidemiology It occurs predominantly in young males, with the onset of symptoms generally appearing in the first decade of life with a peak ...
Article

Extraocular muscles

The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are the six skeletal muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements. Terminology The extraocular muscles maybe subdivided into the recti muscles and the oblique muscles. Action A summary of the principal actions of each muscle are given below....
Article

Ocular metastasis

Ocular metastases, also termed uveal metastases, account for over 80% of all ocular pathology, and need to be distinguished from extraocular metastasis, which are quite different groups of tumors. This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting the orbits. For other intracranial metastat...
Article

Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular muscl...
Article

Proptosis

Proptosis (rare plural: proptoses) refers to forward protrusion of the globe with respect to the orbit. Proptosis can be relative (to the contralateral eye), comparative (to a prior measurement of the same eye), or absolute (based on normal population reference values). Terminology Exophthalmo...
Case

Intraconal extra-ocular malignant melanoma metastasis

 Diagnosis almost certain
Jan Frank Gerstenmaier
Published 22 Mar 2013
83% complete
CT
Case

Globe rupture (anterior chamber)

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dalia Ibrahim
Published 28 Mar 2014
62% complete
CT
Article

Optic neuropathy

Optic neuropathy is a broad term and can result from a variety of causes including: genetic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy compression / trauma (TON, traumatic optic neuropath) optic nerve sheath meningioma progressive diaphyseal dysplasia thyroid-associated orbitopathy shear injury i...
Article

Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis denotes inflammation of the optic nerve and is one of the more common causes of optic neuropathy. It can be thought of as broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious causes, although the latter is far more frequent. On imaging, optic neuritis is most easily identified as a ...
Case

Orbital floor fracture with ruptured globe

 Diagnosis certain
Smita Deb
Published 16 Jan 2015
95% complete
CT
Article

Scleritis

Scleritis refers to inflammation of the sclera. It has a wide range of causes. Epidemiology It can affect any age group but usually those between ages 30 and 50 years. There is a recognized increased female predilection (F:M of ~2:1). Pathology Information on the pathogenesis of scleritis is...
Article

Enlarged extraocular muscles (differential)

There is a short list of causes for enlarged extraocular muscles. The differential can be narrowed by the clinical history, known systemic illness, pattern of specific muscles involved, the muscle morphology, as well as concurrent findings outside the muscles 3: inflammatory, infectious, and de...
Article

Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to the accumulation of fluid in the suprachoroidal space generally due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), as observed in some settings: choroidal effusion transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulatin...
Case

Choroidal nevus

 Diagnosis almost certain
Wen Jak Ma
Published 27 May 2016
72% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Nasolacrimal tumors

Nasolacrimal tumors, in other words, tumors involving the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus are uncommon and have a variety of histologies. They are a more common cause of a lacrimal sac mass than an inflammatory cause.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation of nasolacrimal tumors are typi...
Case

Scleral buckle surgery

 Diagnosis certain
Henry Knipe
Published 19 Jan 2017
86% complete
CT