Items tagged “orthopaedics”

37 results found
Article

Lisfranc injury

Lisfranc injuries, also called Lisfranc fracture-dislocations, are the most common type of dislocation involving the foot and correspond to the dislocation of the articulation of the tarsus with the metatarsal bases. Pathology Anatomy The Lisfranc joint is the articulation of the tarsus with ...
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Femoral neck fracture

Neck of femur fractures (NOF) are common injuries sustained by older patients who are both more likely to have unsteadiness of gait and reduced bone mineral density, predisposing to fracture. Elderly osteoporotic women are at greatest risk. Epidemiology It is anticipated that the total number ...
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Pathological fracture

Pathological fractures are fractures that occur in abnormal bone. Terminology The term pathological fracture is usually reserved through a malignancy, either benign or malignant, although it has been used in the setting osteomyelitis. It can be used in the setting of generalized metabolic bone...
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Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
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Sternoclavicular joint dislocation

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation is rare, accounting for only ~2% of joint dislocations and especially when compared to other traumatic upper limb injuries such as clavicular fractures.  Clinical presentation Most cases result from indirect trauma 5, especially high-speed motor vehicle...
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Maisonneuve fracture

Maisonneuve fracture refers to a combination of a fracture of the proximal fibula together with an unstable ankle injury (widening of the ankle mortise on x-ray), often comprising ligamentous injury (distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, deltoid ligament) and/or fracture of the medial malleolus. It i...
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Line of Klein

The line of Klein describes a line along the superior edge of the neck of the femur. It is useful in detecting early slipped upper femoral epiphysis​ in adolescents. The line should normally intersect the lateral part of the superior femoral epiphysis. If the line of Klein fails to intersect the...
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Latarjet procedure

The Latarjet procedure is an orthopedic procedure in the shoulder where a coracoid bone block is positioned flush with the anterior-inferior border of the glenoid (often with one or more screws). It can be performed as either an open or arthroscopic procedure. It is usually performed for antero-...
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Fracture healing

Fracture healing occurs naturally after traumatic bony disruption. This process begins with hemorrhage and progresses through three stages: inflammatory reparative remodelling This process can be supported by various treatment options with immobilization a mainstay; inappropriate treatment m...
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Complications of total hip arthroplasty

Complications of total hip arthroplasty are common and it is essential for the radiologist to be aware of them in the assessment of radiographs of total hip replacements. Complications are many and can occur at various time intervals following the initial surgery: aseptic loosening: considered ...
Article

Lateral femoral notch sign (knee)

The (deep) lateral femoral notch sign describes a depression on the lateral femoral condyle at the terminal sulcus, a junction between the weight-bearing tibial articular surface and the patellar articular surface of the femoral condyle. Pathology The likely mechanism is a hyperextension or im...
Article

Metal-on-metal pseudotumour

A metal-on-metal pseudotumour, also known as aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL), is a mass-forming tissue reaction around a metal-on-metal hip or knee replacement. Clinical presentation Metal-on-metal pseudotumours are large focal solid or semiliquid masses around...
Article

Carpometacarpal joint dislocation

Carpometacarpal (CMC) joint dislocations are uncommon dislocations of the hand. Epidemiology There is a strong younger male predominance. These injuries account for less than 1% of hand injuries 4 and are more common in the dominant hand. Clinical presentation Typical mechanism: punching (m...
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Calcaneal inclination axis

The calcaneal inclination axis is drawn between the most inferior portion of the calcaneal tuberosity and the most distal and inferior point of the calcaneus at the calcaneocuboid joint on a weightbearing lateral foot radiograph. It can be used to draw the calcaneal inclination angle.
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Mid-talar axis

The mid-talar axis represents a line drawn down the longitudinal axis of the talus and can be drawn on lateral and DP radiographs.  lateral view: line should bisect the shaft of the first metatarsal DP view: line should intersect (or pass just medial to) the base of the first metatarsal I...
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Calcaneal inclination angle

The calcaneal inclination angle (also known as the calcaneal pitch) is drawn on a weightbearing lateral foot radiograph between the calcaneal inclination axis and the supporting horizontal surface. It is a measurement that reflects the height of the foot framework, but is affected by abnormal p...
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Talar declination angle

The talar declination angle is drawn on the weightbearing lateral foot radiograph between the mid-talar axis and the supporting surface. It should usually measure approximately 21°. If the first metatarsal axis is steep, the mid-talar axis approaches the horizontal and is projected above the fi...
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First metatarsal axis

The first metatarsal axis is represented by a line drawn down the longitudinal axis of the shaft of the first metatarsal. It can be drawn on lateral and DP radiographs and is used to measure the: first metatarsal inclination angle talo-first metatarsal angle
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Angle of the longitudinal arch (foot)

The angle of the longitudinal arch is one of the angles drawn on the weightbearing lateral foot radiograph. The angle is formed between the calcaneal inclination axis and a line drawn along the inferior edge of the 5th metatarsal. The normal angle is 150-170°. In pes cavus, as the height of th...
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Midfoot equinus

Midfoot equinus is an abnormality in foot alignment where there is abnormal plantarflexion of the foot in the midfoot. Related pathology Midfoot equinus occurs as a component of congenital talipes equinovarus.

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