Items tagged “paediatrics”
29 results found
Beta angle (developmental dysplasia of the hip)
The beta angle is a measurement used in the ultrasonographic assessment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is defined as the angle formed between the vertical cortex of the ilium and the triangular labral fibrocartilage (echogenic triangle) and thus reflects the femoral head cartil...
The acetabular angle is a radiographic measurement used when evaluating potential developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is most useful in patients who have started to ossify the epiphysis since ossification diminishes the usefulness of ultrasound. The angle is formed by a horizontal lin...
Ebstein anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac anomaly, characterised by a variable developmental anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Epidemiology The anomaly accounts for only ~0.5% of congenital cardiac defects 6-7, although it is the most common cause of congenital tricuspid regurgitation. T...
Transposition of the great arteries
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly presenting during the newborn period, with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It accounts for up to 7% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 1 and can be assessed with echocardiography, gated car...
Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition caused by inflammation of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds 1, which can lead to acute airway obstruction. Hence, treatment should be urgent and performed by appropriately trained individuals, e.g. instrumentation of the trachea should be perfor...
Paediatric urinary tract infection
Paediatric urinary tract infections are common and are a source of significant imaging in young children. Epidemiology Paediatric urinary tract infections affect up to 2.8% of all children every year, with approximately 2% of boys and 8% or more of girls developing a urinary tract infection at...
Published 07 Jul 2010
Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysplasia, is a rare skeletal dysplasia with predominantly membranous bone involvement, which carries an autosomal dominant inheritance 4. Clinical presentation large head, with large fontanelles with delayed closure broad mandible ...
Published 04 Oct 2010
Published 10 Nov 2010
Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection external to the Galeal aponeurosis in the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results f...
Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (ovary)
Juvenile granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (JGCT) are a less common subtype of granulosa cell tumour of the ovary (~5% of cases). They are classified as ovarian sex cord / stromal tumours. Epidemiology It typically occurs in premenarchal girls and young women. The mean age of presentation is...
Elbow joint effusion
An elbow joint effusion is a key finding to recognise on an elbow radiograph and should be used as a trigger to search for a fracture. Finding an effusion Recognising an elbow joint effusion on lateral radiographs is an essential radiology skill. While the fluid itself is not discretely seen...
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Published 15 Jul 2013
Bilateral congenital radioulnar synostosis
Published 12 Aug 2013
Right upper lobe pneumonia
Published 15 Jan 2014
Neuroblastoma with skull metastases
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 06 Aug 2014
Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 18 Nov 2014
Kabuki syndrome (Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare polydysplasia that is thought to be more common in Japan. Epidemiology Estimated incidence of 1:32,000 in Japan. Sporadically seen elsewhere in the world. The reason for the disparity in incidence is controversial. Pathology The cause for t...
Gonadoblastomas are uncommon sex cord / stromal tumours. They are associated with disorders of sexual development (previously known as "intersex disorders"). Epidemiology The vast majority are found <30 years of age. Most are discovered in the perinatal period. May occur in phenotypic males or...