Items tagged “pancreas”

52 results found
Article

Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made by fulfilling two of the following three criteria 8: acute onset of persistent, severe epigastric pain (i.e. pain consistent with acute pancr...
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
Article

Pancreatic ducts

The pancreatic ductal embryology is moderately complicated, leading to a number of anatomical variants of the pancreatic ducts, many of which are clinically significant. The normal arrangement is for the entire pancreas to be drained via a single duct, to the ampulla of Vater through the sphinc...
Article

Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
Article

Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare paediatric tumours of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean ag...
Article

Pancreas

The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that has both endocrine and exocrine functions: it is involved in the production of hormones (insulin, glucagon and somatostatin), and also involved in digestion by its production and secretion of pancreatic juice. Gross anatomy The pancreas can be divid...
Article

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. On imaging, it usually presents as a hypodense mass on CT that is poorly marginated, which may encase vessels and the common biliar...
Article

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Pancreatic pseudocysts are common sequelae of acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis, and the most common cystic lesion of the pancreas. They are important both in terms of management and differentiation from other cystic processes or masses in this region. Terminology The following are th...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis associated with autoimmune manifestations on clinical, histological, and laboratory grounds 1. Distinguishing this entity from other forms of chronic pancreatitis (such as alcohol-induced) is important as steroid treatment is effec...
Article

Puestow procedure

The Puestow procedure is a lateral side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy that is used for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreas is essentially filleted along its long axis from the uncinate process to the tail and connected to a Roux en-Y loop of jejunum. The pancreaticojejunal anas...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis (diagnostic criteria)

There are several sets of diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), with some overlap and contradictions. At the time of writing (July 2016), these are the most widely used sets of diagnostic criteria. Asian 2008 AIP diagnostic criteria both criteria I to be fulfilled one criter...
Article

Pancreatic metastases

Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and are only found in a minority (3-12%) of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy . They account for only 2-5% of all pancreatic malignancies. Although essentially any primary may eventually deposit in the panaceas the most common primaries en...
Article

Ranson criteria

Ranson's criteria are useful in assessing prognosis in early acute pancreatitis. The more of the criteria are met the higher the mortality. Ranson's criteria are assessed both at admission and at 48 hours. Criteria On admission age: >55 years white blood count: >16 000/mm blood glucose leve...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
Article

Pancreatic lipomatosis

Pancreatic lipomatosis refers to fatty replacement of pancreatic parenchyma. This finding is most often associated with obesity and aging.  It tends to be commonest pathological condition involving the pancreas. The condition may occassionally simulate a mass like lesion particularly when fatty...
Article

Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lace...
Article

Paraduodenal pancreatitis

Paraduodenal pancreatitis is an uncommon type of focal chronic pancreatitis affecting the groove between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum and the common bile duct. Terminology The following entities with which it shares clinicopathological features are unified by this term and should no ...
Article

Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic p...
Article

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumours that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumours have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumours", referring to the islets of Langerhans, from which they...
Article

Insulinoma

Insulinomas are the most common sporadic endocrine tumour of the pancreas. Epidemiology Account for 40% of syndromic pancreatic endocrine tumours. Overall incidence of ~0.0003%. Clinical presentation Typically insulinomas present with Whipple's triad consisting of: fasting hypoglycemia (<50...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.