Items tagged “pathology”

11 results found
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of sub types, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated sub type, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epitheli...
Article

Blood brain barrier

The blood brain barrier (BBB) forms a physical resistance to the passage of lipophobic substances from cerebral capillaries into the brain and is a key reason why there is no CSF enhancement following IV contrast media in CT and MR imaging. Gross anatomy The BBB is formed by a combination of e...
Article

Pick bodies

Pick bodies are intracytoplasmic spherical inclusions found in Pick's disease. They are composed of tau fibrils (thus Pick's disease is a taupathy) arranged in a disorderly array 1. Although tau protein is a major component a number of other protein products are present, including ubiquitin and ...
Article

Neuritic plaques

Neuritic plaques (also known as senile plaques) are pathological extracellular aggregates formed around a core of amyloid β peptide and are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.  They should not be confused with neurofibrillary tangles which are intracytoplasmic. Pathology Neuritic plaques are e...
Article

Neurofibrillary tangles

Neurofibrillary tangles are abnormal cytoplasmic accumulations of tau proteins, found in neuronal and glial cells of the central nervous system. They are responsible for a number of neurodegenerative disease (collectively known as taupathies) including 1: progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)  ...
Article

Inflammation

Inflammation is a response to a noxious stimuli which can be either be acute or chronic. The cardinal signs of inflammation include: heat redness swelling pain loss of tissue function Sub types Acute Inflammation Acute inflammation occurs within the first few hours after an injury. In ...
Article

Adenoma-carcinoma sequence

The adenoma-carcinoma sequence refers to a stepwise pattern of mutational activation of oncogenes (e.g. K-ras) and inactivation of tumour suppressor genes (e.g. p53) that results in cancer. An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumour cells, these are often mutated or ...
Article

Rosenthal fibres

Rosenthal fibres are astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, typically found in areas of longstanding gliosis. These elongated or "corkscrew" structures occur within astrocytic processes and are brightly eosinophilic (stain bright pink on the H&E stain) 1-3. They represent astrocytic processes swolle...
Article

Homer Wright rosettes

Homer Wright rosettes are differentiated tumour cells grouped around a central region containing neuropil (therefore its association with tumors of neuronal origin). Pathology Examples of tumours where these can be seen include: medulloblastoma (the presence of Homer Wright rosettes in a post...
Article

RANZCR pathology MCQ exam

The RANZCR pathology MCQ exam is part of the RANZCR part 2 examination. Format The examination consists of 100 multiple choice questions, each with a stem and 5 possible answers, and is of 2 hours in duration. Since August 2012 the examination has been delivered electronically. Currently it i...
Article

Second branchial cleft fistula

Second branchial cleft fistulae are congenital anomalies of embryonic development of branchial apparatus with the external cutaneous ostium in the lateral neck connecting to the tonsillar fossa. They can be diagnosed as a result of typical clinical presentation and the diagnosis can be confirmed...

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