Items tagged “placenta”

16 results found

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment is an important part of fetal well-being assessment and evaluates Doppler flow in the uterine arteries and rarely the ovarian arteries. Pathology In a non-gravid state and at the very start of pregnancy the flow in the uterine artery is of high pulsatility ...

Circumvallate placenta

Circumvallate placenta refers to a variation in placental morphology in which, as a result of a small chorionic plate, the amnion and chorion fetal membranes ‘double back’ around the edge of the placenta. Epidemiology The prevalence is estimated to be around 1-7% 3. Pathology There is an inw...

Placental chorioangioma

Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours of placental origin. It is the most common tumour of the placenta and is usually found incidentally. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1% of all pregnancies 3. Clinical presentation In most cases, chorioangiomas are asymptomatic,...

Placenta praevia

Placenta praevia is a term given to an abnormally low position of the placenta such that it lies close to, or covers the internal cervical os.  It is a potentially life-threatening condition for both mother and infant, which may result in exsanguination. As such, antenatal diagnosis is essentia...

Placental abruption

Placental abruption (or abruptio placentae) refers to a premature separation of the normally implanted placenta after the 20th week of gestation and before the 3rd stage of labour. It is a potentially fatal complication of pregnancy and is a significant cause of third-trimester bleeding/antepart...

Vasa praevia

Vasa praevia is a term given when there are abnormal fetal vessels within the amniotic membranes that either cross or run in extremely close proximity to the internal cervical os. Pathology Vasa previa can be of two types type I (present in ~ 90% of cases with vasa praevia 3): abnormal fetal ...

Succenturiate lobe

A succenturiate lobe is a variation in placental morphology and refers to a smaller accessory placental lobe that is separate to the main disc of the placenta. There can be more than one succenturiate lobe. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~2 per 1000 pregnancies. Radiographic features...

Variation in placental morphology

There can be several variations in placental morphology. These include: single lobed discoid placenta (single disc): most common scenario bilobed placenta: two near equal size lobes succenturiate lobe(s): one of more smaller accessory lobes circumvallate placenta: rolled placental edges with...

Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta is both the general term applied to abnormal placental adherence and also the condition seen at the milder end of the spectrum of abnormal placental adherence. This article focuses on the second, more specific definition. In a placenta accreta, the placental villi extend beyond...

Differential diagnosis for bleeding in pregnancy

Uterine bleeding during pregnancy is a common clinical presentation that often necessitates obstetric ultrasound for the assessment of the haemorrhage, and of fetal well being. The potential causes vary with the stage of gestation. Bleeding in the first trimester miscarriage threatened misca...

Placental venous lakes

Placental venous lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, b...

Velamentous cord insertion

Velamentous cord insertion is one of the types of abnormal umbilical cord insertion into the placenta. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~1% in singleton and 9-15% in twin pregnancies, respectively 11. It is also more common in placenta previa than in normally located placentas. The prev...

Marginal cord insertion

Marginal cord insertion is a type of abnormal cord insertion. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~7% 1 of singleton pregnancies but ~25% of twin pregnancies. Hence, it is very important to locate the umbilical cord in all patients, particularly in high-risk pregnancy. Pathology In th...

Placenta increta

Placenta increta is an intermediate level in the spectrum of abnormal placental villous implantation and accounts for ~20% of such cases. The placental villi extend beyond the confines of the endometrium and invade the myometrium.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is increasing (likely rel...


The placenta is a fetal organ of pregnancy, responsible for providing nutrition and oxygen to the fetus as well as excretory functions.  Embryology Placenta is formed by fetal and maternal components 2: maternal component: decidua placentalis is the inner portion of the placenta, which is for...

Placental evaluation with MRI

Placental evaluation with MRI is a problem-solving technique that can be used if ultrasound evaluation is insufficient or confusing. Even if the placenta is not the main point of evaluation, it is useful to understand the appearance of the placenta on obstetric imaging for other causes. Techniq...

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