Items tagged “pocus”

118 results found
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Ectopia lentis

Ectopia lentis refers to subluxation or dislocation of the lens of the eye secondary to dysfunction or disruption of zonular fibers. It is most commonly due to trauma. The commonest atraumatic etiologies are Marfan syndrome and homocystinuria. Pathology Etiology trauma systemic and syndromic...
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Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighboring loop of the bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae including bowel necrosis. Whe...
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Scaphoid fracture

Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
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Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. It usually occurs after a fe...
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Stellate ganglion block

The stellate ganglion block describes blockade of the cervicothoracic sympathetic chain which provides post-ganglionic sympathetic efferents to the head, neck and upper extremities. Neural blockade is typically achieved by deposition of local anesthetic between the prevertebral fascia and longus...
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Shoulder dislocation

The shoulder dislocation (more accurately termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) involves separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to the...
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Joint effusion

A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small amount of physiological intra-articular fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulation can result from inflammation, infection (i.e. pus) or trauma and might be exudate, tr...
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Infectious myositis

Infectious myositis is an infection of skeletal muscle, and can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Pyomyositis refers specifically to a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle.  Epidemiology It is most often seen in young adults. Pyomyositis, or bacterial myositis, was once considered a tropical d...
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Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. If the clinical presentation is atypical, pulled elbow should be distinguished from ...
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Acute acalculous cholecystitis

Acute acalculous cholecystitis refers to the development of cholecystitis in gallbladder either without gallstones or with gallstones where they are not the contributory factor. It is thought to occur most often due to biliary stasis and/or gallbladder ischemia. Epidemiology Acute acalculous c...
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Speckle tracking echocardiography

Speckle tracking echocardiography describes the semi-automated analysis of grey scale (B-mode) echocardiographic studies in which the spatial translocation of derived functional units (speckles) allows quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Speckle tracking constitutes a subset of deform...
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Tuberculous peritonitis

Tuberculous peritonitis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis affecting the peritoneum. It is frequently seen in association with other forms of gastrointestinal tuberculosis 6. Epidemiology Tuberculosis is usually confined to the respiratory system but may involve any organ system 1. Extra...
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Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation, also known as mitral valve insufficiency or mitral valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the mitral valve during systole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the left ventricle into the left atrium. Epidemiology According...
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Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that can occur in the setting of right-sided heart failure (and its underlying causes). If there is subsequent hepatic fibrosis the term cardiac cirrhosis may be used. The condition can rarely occur as a result of non-cardiac cau...
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, apical ballooning syndrome, or broken heart syndrome, is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not confined to a single coronary arterial territory. Epidemiology It has been described predomi...
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a feared complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm and is a surgical emergency. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Abdominal aortic aneurysms are common and affect ~7.5% of patients aged over 65 years 6. Clinical presentat...
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Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Epidemiology Associations Rib fractures are often associated with other injuries and the greater the number of rib fractures the more likely are associated injuries 1,3: brachial plexus or subclavi...
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Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
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Patent foramen ovale

A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an anatomical variant of the atrial septum in which there is incomplete fusion of the interface between the embryologic septum primum and secundum; this may result in intracardiac shunting.  Terminology Despite anatomical proximity and potential hemodynamic simi...
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Ultrasound of the knee

Ultrasound of the knee allows high-resolution imaging of superficial knee anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of some of the tendons and ligaments. Knee ultrasound is somewhat limited compared with ultrasound examinations of other joints because the cruciate ligaments and th...