Items tagged “pregnancy”

38 results found
Article

Anembryonic pregnancy

Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form. The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favour and is best avoided.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, presenting for a...
Article

Early pregnancy

Early pregnancy roughly spans the first ten weeks of the first trimester. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound  0-4.3 weeks: no ultrasound findings 4.3-5.0 weeks:  possible small gestational sac possible double decidual sac sign (DDSS) possible intradecidual sac sign (IDSS) 5.1-5.5...
Article

Twin-twin transfusion syndrome

Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a potential complication that can occur in a monochorionic twin (either MCDA or MCMA) pregnancy.  Epidemiology This complication can occur in ~10% (range 15-25%) of monochorionic pregnancies giving an estimated prevalence of ~1:2000 of all pregnancie...
Article

First trimester

The first trimester is defined as the first 13 weeks of pregnancy following the last normal menstrual period (some authors refer to early pregnancy as 0-10 weeks). It can be divided into a number of phases, each of which has typical clinical issues. These phases are: conceptus phase: 3-5 weeks ...
Article

Yolk sac

Yolk sac is the first anatomical structure identified within the gestational sac. It plays a critical role in embryonal development by providing nutrients, serving as the site of initial hematopoiesis, providing endocrine, metabolic and immunological functions and contributing to the development...
Article

Fetal heart beat

Fetal heart beat can be detected as early as 34 days (just under 6 weeks) gestation on good quality, high frequency transvaginal ultrasound, as a crown rump length (CRL) of as little as 1-2 mm. If a fetal heartbeat cannot be identified with a CRL ≥7 mm using transvaginal scanning, then embryona...
Case

Acrania-exencephaly sequence

Acrania
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Mohd Imran
Published 23 Nov 2009
61% complete
X-rayUltrasound
Case

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 16 Jan 2010
79% complete
Ultrasound
Case

Bicornuate pregnancy

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 16 Jan 2010
79% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Twin reversed arterial perfusion

Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is considered a severe variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). The hallmark of this condition which only happens in monochorionic pregnancies is the lack of placental perfusion of one of the twins (so-called acardiac twin), with a...
Article

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life-threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
Article

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare pregnancy-associated condition that tends to manifest in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy or early postpartum period. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1:7000-20,000 births.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with nausea,...
Article

Antenatal screening

Antenatal screening and diagnosis are currently available for a few selected genetic conditions, including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and neural tube defects. For an overview of the conditions and their manifestations, please refer to t...
Article

Twin growth discordance

Twin growth discordance is a term used in obstetric imaging to describe a significant size or weight difference between the two fetuses of a twin pregnancy. To be classified as a growth discordance, some consider that the estimated fetal weight (EFW) of the smaller twin should fall under the 10t...
Article

Wharton jelly

Wharton jelly refers to the gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord. Gross anatomy Wharton jelly is derived from extra-embryonic mesoderm and is largely made up of mucopolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate) while containing smaller amounts of fibroblasts and macropha...
Article

Two diameter pocket method

The two diameter pocket (TDP) method is an alternative method of assessing amniotic fluid volumes on ultrasound. However, it is not thought to be a good predictor of adverse neonatal outcome 2. Sonographic assessment According to this method 1,2: TDP <15 cm2: indicative of oligohydramnios TD...
Article

Parturition-induced pelvic instability

Parturition-induced pelvic instability is a rare condition seen in women following vaginal delivery.  Epidemiology The incidence of symphyseal rupture after vaginal delivery ranges from one in 600 to one in 30,000 deliveries 1.  Predisposing factors include multiparity, complicated delivery, ...
Case

Third trimester gestation

 Diagnosis certain
Hugo Neves (RT)
Published 24 Mar 2012
77% complete
CT
Case

Heterotopic pregnancy

Ultrasound demons...
 Diagnosis almost certain
baltimore kely mendez
Published 10 Jan 2013
82% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Placenta

The placenta is a fetal organ of pregnancy, responsible for providing nutrition and oxygen to the fetus as well as excretory functions.  Embryology Placenta is formed by fetal and maternal components 2: maternal component: decidua placentalis is the inner portion of the placenta, which is for...

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