Items tagged “pregnancy”

25 results found
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Anembryonic pregnancy

Anembryonic pregnancy is a form of a failed early pregnancy, where a gestational sac develops, but the embryo does not form.  Terminology The term blighted ovum is synonymous with this but is falling out of favor and is best avoided.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, pr...
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Early pregnancy

Early pregnancy roughly spans the first ten weeks of the first trimester. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound  0-4.3 weeks: no ultrasound findings 4.3-5.0 weeks:  possible small gestational sac possible double decidual sac sign (DDSS) possible intradecidual sac s...
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Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a potential complication that can occur in a monochorionic (either MCDA or MCMA) twin pregnancy.  Epidemiology This complication can occur in ~10% (range 15-25%) of monochorionic pregnancies giving an estimated prevalence of ~1:2000 of all pregnancie...
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First trimester

The first trimester is defined as the first 13 weeks of pregnancy following the last normal menstrual period (some authors refer to early pregnancy as 0-10 weeks). It can be divided into a number of phases, each of which has typical clinical issues. These phases are: conceptus phase: 3-5 weeks ...
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Yolk sac

Yolk sac is the first anatomical structure identified within the gestational sac. It plays a critical role in embryonal development by providing nutrients, serving as the site of initial hematopoiesis, providing endocrine, metabolic and immunological functions and contributing to the development...
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Fetal heart beat

Fetal heart beat can be detected as early as 34 days (just under 6 weeks) gestation on good quality, high frequency transvaginal ultrasound, as a crown rump length (CRL) of as little as 1-2 mm. If a fetal heartbeat cannot be identified with a CRL ≥7 mm using transvaginal scanning, then embryona...
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Twin reversed arterial perfusion

Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a rare complication of monochorionic pregnancies. It develops when the following conditions are present: 1. lack of a well-formed heart in one of the twins (so-called acardiac twin), and 2. a superficial artery to artery placental anastomosis...
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HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life-threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The es...
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Acute fatty liver of pregnancy

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare pregnancy-associated condition that tends to manifest in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy or early postpartum period. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1:7000-20,000 births.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with nausea,...
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Antenatal screening

Antenatal screening and diagnosis are currently available for a few selected genetic conditions, including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and neural tube defects. For an overview of the conditions and their manifestations, please refer to t...
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Twin growth discordance

Twin growth discordance is a term used in obstetric imaging to describe a significant size or weight difference between the two fetuses of a twin pregnancy. To be classified as a growth discordance, some consider that the estimated fetal weight (EFW) of the smaller twin should fall under the 10t...
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Wharton jelly

Wharton jelly refers to the gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord. Gross anatomy Wharton jelly is derived from extra-embryonic mesoderm and is largely made up of mucopolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate) while containing smaller amounts of fibroblasts and macropha...
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Two diameter pocket method

The two diameter pocket (TDP) method is an alternative method of assessing amniotic fluid volumes on ultrasound. However, it is not thought to be a good predictor of adverse neonatal outcome 2. Sonographic assessment According to this method 1,2: TDP <15 cm2: indicative of oligohydramnios TD...
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Parturition-induced pelvic instability

Parturition-induced pelvic instability is a rare condition seen in women following vaginal delivery.  Epidemiology The incidence of symphyseal rupture after vaginal delivery ranges from one in 600 to one in 30,000 deliveries 1.  Predisposing factors include multiparity, complicated delivery, ...
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Placenta

The placenta is a fetal organ of pregnancy, responsible for providing nutrition and oxygen to the fetus as well as excretory functions.  Embryology Placenta is formed from fetal and maternal components 2: maternal component: decidua placentalis is the inner portion of the placenta, which is f...
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Umbilical cord

The umbilical cord is a fetal organ that connects the placenta to the developing fetus and is a vital passage for nutrients, oxygen and waste products to and from the fetus. Gross anatomy The umbilical cord inserts into the center of the placental bulk and into the fetus at the umbilicus. Vari...
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Trauma in pregnancy

Trauma is a leading cause of mortality in pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the incidence and severity of abdominal trauma in females.  Epidemiology Trauma affects up to 7% of pregnancies, and the incidence of pregnancy in level 1 trauma patients is estimated to be ~2% 1.  Pathology Etiology 9...
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Hamman syndrome

Hamman syndrome, also known as Macklin syndrome, refers to spontaneous pneumomediastinum along with subcutaneous emphysema. Epidemiology It is a rare entity most often encountered in young adults. It is a known entity peri- and postpartum 3. Clinical presentation The condition is most common...
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Chorionic bump

Chorionic bump is a finding that can be uncommonly seen in a first-trimester scan. It may represent a small hematoma bulging into the gestational sac or an anembryonic (failed) second pregnancy that is being resorbed. It is also seen in some patients undergoing infertility treatment. Epidemiolo...
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Dystocia of shoulder

Shoulder dystocia (SD) refers to the failure of the shoulder to be delivered during childbirth and the need for extra-obstetric maneuvers to facilitate their passage after normal smooth gentle downward traction has failed. Dystocia literally means difficult labor. Epidemiology The incidence of...