Items tagged “re-write”

38 results found
Article

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) refers to a rare, fatal congenital abnormality of the lungs characterized by grossly dilated lymphatic channels in the sub pleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial areas 3. It is divided into two main types 1: cardiac-associated lymphangiectasia (seco...
Article

Iron overload cardiomyopathy

Iron overload cardiomyopathy (IOC) refers to a secondary form of cardiomyopathy resulting from the accumulation of iron in the myocardium. It occurs mainly due to genetically determined disorders of iron metabolism (e.g. cardiomyopathy in hemochromatosis, thalassemia 6,7) or multiple transfusion...
Article

Rectocele

Rectocele refers to a herniation or bulge of the rectal wall, with the most common type being an anterior rectocele where the bulge is into the posterior vaginal wall in a female patient. Rectocoeles can also occur posteriorly or laterally. Rectocoele is the term most commonly used by colorectal...
Article

Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (R-ILD) or rituximab pneumonitis is a rare non-infectious pulmonary side effect of the monoclonal CD20 antibody rituximab used in therapy for certain oncological/hematological and rheumatological disorders. Epidemiology Since solely based on casuisti...
Article

Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus is an acute and prolonged seizure that persists for a sufficient length of time or is repeated frequently enough that recovery between attacks does not occur. It is a clinical emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology The estimated incidence of ~35...
Article

Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy

Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy encompasses a complex and broad range of effects on the intra- and extracranial vessels resulting from injury from radiation exposure. Manifestations can include hemorrhages and ischemic strokes, cavernoma and capillary telangiectasias, and large vessel st...
Article

Wilson disease (CNS manifestations)

Wilson disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is a multisystem disease due to abnormal accumulation of copper. It is characterized by early onset liver cirrhosis with CNS findings most frequently affecting the basal ganglia and midbrain. This article aims to discuss the central n...
Article

Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH) are nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhages that occur within the surface sulci of the brain (c.f. basal cisternal distribution of aneurysmal SAH). Pathology There are various causes of convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage, some of which include: dural venou...
Article

Orbital blow-in fractures

Orbital blow-in fractures occur when there is displacement of bone fragments towards the orbits. Pathology blow-in fracture effectively reduces the volume of the orbit associated intraorbital injuries include extraocular muscle entrapment and optic nerve injury as an isolated (pure) orbital ...
Article

Cystic bronchiectasis

Cystic bronchiectasis is one of the less common morphological forms of bronchiectasis. It may be present on its own or may be occur in combination with other forms of bronchiectasis. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on bronchiectasis. Radiographic features It is character...
Article

Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland is a rare physiologic compensatory event in many hematologic diseases. For a general discussion on this subject, please refer to the main article on extramedullary hematopoiesis. Epidemiology Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland i...
Article

Cortical blindness syndrome

Cortical blindness is a condition resulting from lesions in the primary visual cortex (V1) characterized by visual impairment but with an intact anterior visual pathway (normal pupillary reflexes and fundal appearance). Clinical presentation The degree of visual impairment is related to the ex...
Article

Cerclage wire

Cerclage wire refers to a type of orthopedic fixation/stabilization wire placed to approximate fractured bone fragments. Types full - 360° circumferential wire used in diaphysis segments of long bones hemicerclage - wire is placed through one of the main fractured bone fragments, as used in t...
Article

Proliferating trichilemmal cyst

Proliferating trichilemmal cysts are dermal or subcutaneous tumors with squamoid cytologic features and trichilemmal-type keratinisation usually arising in the scalp. Terminology A variety of names have been used for this pathology, including proliferating epidermoid cyst, pilar tumor of the s...
Article

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that most frequently develops following massive or repeated pulmonary embolism. Terminology The term CTEPH should be used for patients with chronic thromboembolic disease and pulmonary hypert...
Article

Cylindrical bronchiectasis

Cylindrical bronchiectasis, also known as tubular bronchiectasis, is the most commonly identified morphologic type of bronchiectasis where there is smooth uniform enlargement of bronchi with loss of the normal distal tapering of the airways but without focal outpouchings or tortuosity. For a ge...
Article

Skin cancer

Skin cancers refer to malignancies arising from the skin. This is a general discussion of skin cancers, for discussions of specific skin cancers please refer to individual articles. Epidemiology Overall, skin cancers are the most common human malignancy 1. Pathology Primary skin malignancy ...
Article

Sclerodactyly

Sclerodactyly refers to fibrotic tightening and thickening of the skin, with atrophy of the soft tissues, of fingers and toes. Pathology Etiology scleroderma: seen in ~25%  CREST syndrome: seen in ~5% mixed connective tissue disease History and etymology Sclerodactyly is derived from the ...

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