Items tagged “re-write”

38 results found
Article

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
Article

Deep vein thrombosis

The term deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is practically a synonym for clots occuring in the lower limbs. However, it can also be used for those that occur in the upper limbs and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate articles....
Article

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection.  Epidemiology Risk factors include: children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years. developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1. poverty, overcrowding Clinical presentati...
Article

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis of PCOS generally requires any two of the following three criteria for the diagnosis, as well as the exclusion of other et...
Article

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a spectrum of obstructive airway diseases. It includes two key components which are chronic bronchitis-small airways disease and emphysema.  Epidemiology The most common cause has historically been, and unfortunately continues to be, smok...
Article

Sclerotic clavicle

Sclerotic clavicles have many causes: trauma: fractured clavicle arthritis: osteoarthritis, seronegative arthritides osteitis condensans of the clavicle 1 SAPHO syndrome clavicular tumors metastases osteosarcoma lymphoma osteoblastoma bone island tumor-like lesions eosinophilic granu...
Article

Langer-Giedion syndrome

Langer-Giedion syndrome, also known as trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II, is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Pathology The effects are seen mainly on the skeletal system and primarily involves hair: tricho nose: rhino digits of the hands and feet: phalangeal The...
Article

Synucleinopathy

Synucleinopathies are a subgroup of neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by impairment of alpha-synuclein metabolism, resulting in abnormal intracellular deposits and can further be divided into those with and those without the formation of Lewy bodies 1,2: diseases with Lewy bodies Parki...
Article

Tauopathy

Tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal metabolism of tau proteins leading to intracellular accumulation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). These neurofibrillary tangles are deposited in the cytosol of neurons and glial cells.  ...
Article

Central nervous system curriculum

The central nervous system curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core central nervous system knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the intracranial content (brain, pituitary, dura, intracranial vasculatures). There will be...
Article

Miliary nodules in the exam

Getting a film with miliary nodules in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. The film goes up and after a couple of seconds pause, you need to start talking: Chest radiograph There are multiple tiny soft-tissue density nodules present throughout both lungs with...
Article

Complex breast cyst

A complex breast cyst is a morphological type of breast cyst along with simple breast cysts and complicated breast cysts. The current preferred term for complex breast cysts is solid and cystic mass to avoid confusion with a complicated cyst. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound The presen...
Article

Spinal synovial cyst

Synovial cysts of the spine are cystic formations connected to the facet joint and containing synovial fluid lined by a cuboid or pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They may result in lumbar radiculopathy in a significant number of cases. Clinical presentation They may be asymptomatic and f...
Article

Speckle tracking echocardiography

Speckle tracking echocardiography describes the semi-automated analysis of grey scale (B-mode) echocardiographic studies in which the spatial translocation of derived functional units (speckles) allows quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Speckle tracking constitutes a subset of deform...
Article

Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphomas refer to clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is much rarer than secondary pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B-cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of m...
Article

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (also known as metaphyseal dysplasia or dysostosis) is a type of skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Classification Schmid type - mild type, due to mutation in type X collagen (COL10A1 gene), metaphyses are cupped resembling rickets Pena and Vaandrager type - intermedi...
Article

Varicose bronchiectasis

Varicose bronchiectasis refers to an uncommon morphological sub type of bronchiectasis. According to one study, this type as a pure form accounted for ~10% of all bronchiectasis 1. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on bronchiectasis. Radiographic features There are intermi...
Article

Diffuse pulmonary nodules on HRCT (an approach)

A number of differentials must be kept in mind while approaching diffuse pulmonary nodules. Interpretation is easier if nodules are the only abnormality. These differentials can be narrowed down based on the several criteria: Based on appearance  miliary nodules   miliary tuberculosis silic...
Article

Diffuse pulmonary nodules

Diffuse pulmonary nodules are usually seen as multiple pulmonary nodular opacifications on a HRCT chest scan. They can signify disease processes affecting either the interstitium or the airspace. They can range from a few millimeters to up to 1 cm and when very small and numerous there can be so...
Article

Radiation-associated lens opacities

Radiation-associated lens opacities, also known as radiation-induced cataracts, address changes in the lens of the eye by radiation. Pathology The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Exposure to ionizing radiation can cause cataract formation which can develo...

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