Items tagged “reference needed”

105 results found
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Chikungunya fever

Chikungunya fever is caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and is characterized by a classic viral prodrome of fever, skin exanthem, malaise and arthralgia. Its most striking manifestation is a marked, often fairly debilitating arthritis. Clinical presentation fever arthralgia skin rash ...
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Hemoglobin SC disease

Hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is a hemoglobinopathy, and a common variant of sickle cell disease (SCD). There is coinheritance of one HbS gene and one HbC gene, resulting in a milder phenotype than full-blown sickle cell disease. It most commonly manifests with a proliferative retinopathy. Painfu...
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International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT)

The International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) is an organization established in 1959 to provide an international forum for radiographers and radiological technologists. Its primary focus has always been to achieve a betterment of radiographic work practice glo...
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Weight loss

A clinical presentation of weight loss is extremely common and often a source of marked anxiety for the patient. The commonest cause of unintentional weight loss (UWI) is gastrointestinal tract disease, and not malignancy. Terminology The published literature lacks a consistent definition of w...
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Episodic angioedema with eosinophilia

Episodic angioedema with eosinophilia (EAE), also known as Gleich syndrome, is a rare condition presenting as a self-limiting cyclic urticaria, fever, angioedema, weight gain and marked eosinophilia, with 3-4 weekly episodes 1. Epidemiology Episodic angioedema with eosinophilia is rare, only a...
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Branchio-otic syndrome

Branchio-otic syndrome (also known as BOS, BOS1, BO syndrome 1 and branchiootic dysplasia) is a rare autosomal dominant disease. It manifests as abnormalities of the second branchial arch, with predominant abnormalities of the ear. No renal disease is seen, in contradistinction to its close name...
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Jugular trunk

The jugular trunks (TA: truncus jugularis) are small short paired lymphatic trunks, each one draining one side of the head and neck, forming an important terminal part of the lymphatic system 1-3. Gross anatomy Location the left and right jugular trunks are found in the root of the neck Orig...
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Primary hypersecretion of the lacrimal glands

True primary hypersecretion of the lacrimal glands is extremely rare 1. It presents with epiphora and irritation of the periocular skin. Treatment rests upon injection of botulinum toxin, with surgical resection reserved for refractory cases 1,2. 
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Costochondritis

Costochondritis (rare plural: costochondritides) is a common self-limiting painful inflammation of multiple costochondral junctions and/or the costosternal articulation. There is usually a distinct absence of swelling and chest wall palpation usually reproduces the pain.  It is important to not...
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Exclamation mark sign (limy bile)

The exclamation mark sign is a pathognomonic imaging sign of the rare diagnosis of limy bile on plain abdominal radiography. It occurs when there is both limy bile and a gallstone in the common bile duct. The linear vertical radiopaque bile forms the line of the exclamation mark (i.e. !), whilst...
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Host (infectious diseases)

A host in the context of infectious disease refers to an animal or plant that acts as a biological refuge in which another - often parasitic - organism may dwell. The host usually provides shelter or nourishment to the other organism, which may use the host to partially/completely sexually devel...
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Pandemic

The epidemiological term, pandemic is applied to an outbreak of disease that has spread across the globe, or in other words, an epidemic that has crossed many regions, borders and multiple continents. Some of the largest pandemics in history include the bubonic plague in the 14th century and the...
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Red blood cells

Red blood cells (RBCs), also known as erythrocytes (or rarely haematids), are cells that carry oxygen by means of hemoglobin, and form part of the cellular component of blood as it circulates throughout the body. These extremely common cells are typically made in the bone marrow in a process cal...
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Hematoxylin and eosin stain

The combined hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is the most widely used stain in histology and histopathology. Hematoxylin has an intense purple-blue hue and binds to nucleic acids. Eosin has a pink hue and non-specifically stains proteins. These two stains in combination are vital for distinguis...
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Pulvinar (disambiguation)

Pulvinar may refer to: pulvinar thalamic nuclei (classically involved in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, see pulvinar sign) Haversian fat pad of the hip (which covers the central non-articular part of the acetabulum)
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Progressive myoclonic epilepsy

The progressive myoclonic epilepsies form a disparate group of rare severe conditions that are characterized by deteriorating action myoclonus, although other CNS symptoms and signs are often present. Unverricht–Lundborg disease (EPM1) Lafora body disease (EPM2) action myoclonus renal failure...
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GM2 gangliosidoses

The GM2 gangliosidoses are a small group of three closely-related rare genetic conditions, all due to a deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase, an enzyme vital for the metabolism of GM2 gangliosides in lysosomes, especially important in the brain. The GM2 gangliosidoses form a subgroup of the lysosom...
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Granuloma

Granulomas are organized conglomerates of histiocytes, a specialized white blood cell 1. They form by the process of granulomatous inflammation, which is a specific type of chronic inflammation that occurs following cellular injury as a response to the mediators that are released. A broad range ...
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Pyogenic granuloma

A pyogenic granuloma, also known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a common lesion found arising from the skin and mucous membranes. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate them from malignancy, clinically or on imaging.  Terminology Despite its name, a pyogenic granuloma is not a tru...
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Railway track sign

The railway track sign may be used in chest radiography or CT to refer to the appearance of contrast in the pulmonary artery surrounding a partial filling defect in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute embolus sits centrally and is surrounded by contrast media on CTPA. When such vesse...