Items tagged “reference needed”

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Hypoplasia (plural: hypoplasias) is a pathological term referring to the state of a tissue or organ which at the end of its developmental process has not fully formed (cf. aplasia in which the organ/tissue does not form at all). Thus, the term hypoplasia does not tend to be used for a later (pos...

Venae cavae

In human anatomy, the venae cavae is the collective term for the main venous great vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the right heart from the venous side of the systemic circulation, i.e. the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC). Both venae cavae do not contain any valve...

Catel-Manzke syndrome

Catel-Manzke syndrome is a digitopalatal syndrome initially described in 1961. Inheritance pattern is unknown. Radiographic findings include micronagthia and accessory ossicles at the bases of the metacarpals.

Respiratory tract

The respiratory tract refers to the portion of the respiratory system that conducts air into and out of the body. It is conventionally divided into upper and lower tracts. The upper respiratory tract (URT), also known as the upper airways, is the collective term for the components of the respir...

Optic nerve calcification

Optic nerve calcification is a rare radiological finding, with only a short differential diagnosis, many of which have only been described in isolated case reports 1-4. Differential diagnosis optic nerve meningioma optic nerve head drusen idiopathic dural optic nerve sheath calcification ca...

O sign

The O sign is a radiographic sign described in gastric band slippage. Normally, a correctly-sited laparoscopic gastric band lies such that its anterior and posterior margins are superimposed in the anteroposterior orientation and a oblong morphology is visible on a frontal radiograph.  When a g...

Diaphragmatic lung hernia

A diaphragmatic lung hernia (plural: hernias or herniae) is extremely rare, characterized by a lung herniation through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity. There has been a single case report 2. It is questionable whether this entity truly exists at all 3. This is not to be confused with th...

Rectal diverticulosis

Rectal diverticulosis (plural: diverticuloses) or the presence of diverticula in the rectum is very rare. Epidemiology Rectal diverticula are very rare with only scattered case reports in the global medical corpus, and symptomatic cases, e.g. rectal diverticulitis, are even rarer 1. It has bee...

Blunting of the costophrenic angle

Blunting of the costophrenic angle (also known as blunting of the costophrenic sulcus) is a chest radiograph sign usually indicative of a small pleural effusion. It may be seen on either frontal or lateral erect projections. It has been found that approximately 200 mL pleural fluid needs to be p...


Neoplasms, also known as tumors, are pathological masses, caused by cells abnormally proliferating and/or not appropriately dying. Neoplasms may be either benign or malignant. Malignant neoplasms are synonymous with cancers. Benign neoplasms clear origin (unless very large) slow growth  usua...

Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal ​(GI) bleeding refers to hemorrhage into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract; it is commonly clinically subdivided into whether it occurs into the upper (proximal) or lower (distal) GI tract: upper GI bleeding bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz, i.e. proximal to t...

Post cardiac arrest syndrome

The post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) describes the clinicopathological state that manifests following most cardiac arrests. Clinically, it is manifested by a combination of neurological disturbance, multiorgan dysfunction and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like state. Pathology T...

Bile duct duplication

Bile duct duplication, also known as common bile duct duplication (although in some cases this latter terminology would be erroneous), is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system. A double bile duct is considered normal during early human development, but by birth, we expect to see the co...

Carcinoma of the Littré glands

Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1. Epidemiology There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...


A gomphosis (plural: gomphoses), also known as the dentoalveolar syndesmosis, is the specific name for the fibrous joint between the teeth and the alveolar bone of the maxilla/mandible 1,2.

Salt and pepper sign (autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease)

The salt and pepper sign has been given to the heterogeneous echotexture of the enlarged kidneys on ultrasound in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPCKD).

Epicardial lipomatosis

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Muhammad Shoyab
Published 12 Dec 2021
80% complete

WHO classification of skin tumors

The World Health Organizatiοn classification of skin tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for skin tumors. The most recent edition is the 4th, which was published in 2018 1.  The radiologically relevant and common entities are reflected below. Classification  1. Kera...

Lead pipe fracture

The term lead pipe fracture is the term for a radiographic appearance given to a simultaneous greenstick fracture of one side of the bone (usually metaphysis) with a buckle fracture of the opposing cortex of the same bone.  There are differing opinions in texts as to whether this term should be...


A furuncle, also known as a boil, is an infected hair follicle with extension through the dermis into the subcutaneous soft tissues (cf. folliculitis, a more superficial hair follicle infection, with pus limited to the epidermis). Epidemiology Risk factors Outbreaks of furunculosis are seen, ...