Items tagged “references”

16 results found
Article

Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis is a general term that refers to the abnormal narrowing of the cervical spinal canal that compromises the nerve root and/or spinal cord resulting in radiculopathy and/or compressive myelopathy. The most common cause of cervical spinal canal stenosis is age-related degener...
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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with global or regional systolic dysfunction not sufficiently explained by abnormal loading conditions (such as valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, hypertension etc.) or coronary artery disease 1-4. It m...
Article

Incarcerated uterus

An incarcerated uterus or trapped uterus describes an uncommon situation where a retroverted or retroflexed gravid uterus fails to ascend into the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology This is an uncommon presentation and is said to occur in 1 in 3000 pregnancies 1. Uncomplicated retroversion may be ...
Article

Frontal bone

The frontal bone is a skull bone that contributes to the cranial vault. It contributes to form part of the anterior cranial fossa. Gross anatomy The frontal bone has two portions: vertical portion (squama): has external/internal surfaces horizontal portion (orbital): has superior/inferior su...
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Parietal bone

The parietal bone is a paired, irregular, quadrilateral skull bone that forms the sides and roof of the cranium.  Gross anatomy The parietal bone has four borders, four angles, and external/internal surfaces. The four borders are: frontal sagittal occipital (half of lambdoid suture) squam...
Article

Zygomatic bone

The zygomatic bone (also known as zygoma or malar bone) is an important facial bone that forms the prominence of the cheek. It is roughly quadrangular in shape. Gross anatomy Zygoma has three surfaces, five borders, and two processes. Surfaces anterolateral surface is convex, pierced at its ...
Article

Maxilla

The maxillae (or maxillary bones) are a pair of symmetrical bones joined at the midline, which form the middle third of the face. Each maxilla forms the floor of the nasal cavity and parts of its lateral wall and roof, the roof of the oral cavity, contains the maxillary sinus, and contributes mo...
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Palatine bone

The palatine bones are paired L-shaped bones joined at the midline. They form the hard palate with the maxillary bones. They also form part of the floor of the nasal cavity (the hard palate separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity).  Gross anatomy The palatine bones are located at the b...
Article

Potato nodes

Potato nodes are a classical moniker for the large nodes seen in the lung hila and mediastinum on the chest radiograph in pulmonary sarcoidosis. This name is derived from the characteristic bulky irregular morphology of the nodes which is reminiscent of large lumpy potatoes. Although this appear...
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Dark-field computed tomography

Dark-field computed tomography is an emerging medical imaging technology. While conventional CT measures differential attenuation properties of the various tissues, dark-field CT utilizes its small-angle scattering (dark field) characteristics. Clinical applications To date, dark-field radiogr...
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Tetanus

Tetanus is a rare vaccine-preventable disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous soil bacterium which contaminates open wounds. It secretes a powerful neurotoxin which degrades neuromuscular junction function, producing muscle spasms and, despite intensive intervention, is often fatal. ...
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Ossification of the interosseous membrane of the leg

Ossification of the interosseous membrane of the leg is considered a form of heterotopic ossification. It is typically seen as bridging ossification between the tibia and fibula. Three types have been described. type I: usually occurs after a syndesmosis ankle sprain type II: usually from a t...
Article

Baby bird's beak sign

The baby bird's beak sign is an antenatal ultrasound appearance formed by the pulmonary artery abnormally arising from the left ventricle in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries 1-3. In these cases, the pulmonary artery bifurcation and abnormal outflow tracts mimic the head of a bab...
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Residual tumor classification

Residual tumor classification, also known as R classification, defines how complete the resection of a malignancy has been at surgery. It has an important prognostic implication. Classification R0: no residual tumor R1: microscopic residual tumor R2: macroscopic residual tumor An R0 resecti...
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Nezelof syndrome

Nezelof syndrome is a hereditary primary immunodeficiency state caused by thymic dysplasia, lack of T cell function and normal levels of immunoglobulins. Epidemiology Nezelof syndrome is extremely rare. Clinical presentation Common clinical features include 4,5 failure to thrive metaphysea...
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Conditional probability

Probability is the likelihood of a random outcome (called an “event”) and is written as P(event)= x, where x is a number ≥0 and ≤1. Using this notation, the probability of rolling a 2 with a fair 6-sided die is written as P(2)=1/6. A probability of 0 means that an event is impossible while a pro...