Items tagged “refs”

2,562 results found

Eustachian tube

The Eustachian tube is the channel through which the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx. It is approximately 36 mm in length and is directed downward, forward, and medially, forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the sagittal plane and one of 30 to 40 degrees with the horizonta...


Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of synovial fluid. It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. They may or may not communicate ...

Brain death

Brain death refers to the irreversible end of all brain activity and is usually assessed clinically. As this diagnosis is consider equivalent with cardiac death in many jurisdictions4, and it allows organ donation for transplantation or withdrawal of life support, most countries have specific re...

Bird beak sign (oesophagus)

The bird's beak sign of the oesophagus is used to refer to the tapering of the inferior oesophagus in achalasia. The same appearance (although it is difficult to see the similarity) is also referred to as the rat-tail sign. The appearance, although classically occurring in primary achalasia, ca...

Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign

The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side.  It is a non-...

Bartter syndrome

Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited renal disorder. Pathology Bartter syndrome is characterised by hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells along with: hypokalemia metabolic alkalosis hypotension or normotension  elevated plasma renin  elevate aldosterone antenatal polyhydramnios Class...

McLeod syndrome

McLeod syndrome, also known as McLeod phenomenon is a rare X-linked syndrome caused by a mutation in the XK gene that results in haematological abnormalities and late-onset, slowly progressive degeneration of a variety of tissues including the brain, peripheral nerves, muscle and heart 1.  It sh...

Atypical ectopic pregnancy

Atypical ectopic pregnancy generally refers to an ectopic pregnancy which occurs outside the fallopian tube. Locations include: interstitial ectopic: 3% (often also termed cornual ectopic), also essentially a type of tubal ectopic cornual ectopic (<1%) ovarian ectopic: 0.5-1% (ovarian pregna...


Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfused: t...

Mendelson syndrome

Mendelson syndrome or peptic pneumonia refers to acute chemical pneumonitis caused by the aspiration of stomach contents in patients under general anesthesia. Pathology The etiologic agents is believed to be aspiration of acidic stomach contents, other compounds, e.g. bile, may also play a rol...

Haggitt level

The Haggitt level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration from a malignant polypoidal lesion. Levels of invasion 0: carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma 1: invasion of the submucosa, but limited to the head of the polyp 2: invasion extending into the...


Pseudopneumoperitoneum describes any gas within the abdominal cavity that masquerades as free intraperitoneal gas or pneumoperitoneum when it is in fact contained within an organ. Correctly identifying pneumoperitoneum is important, but making the diagnosis in error may lead to further unnecessa...

Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterised by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.  Radiographic features Gastrointestinal manifestations: limited to the mucosa of the gastr...

Nuss procedure

The Nuss procedure (also termed MIRPE - minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum) is one of the operative treatments employed in patients with pectus excavatum. It involves inserting of one (or more) concave metal bars beneath the sternum in the anterior chest wall. It is significantly les...

Galea aponeurotica

The galea aponeurotica (also called the Galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp. Gross anatomy Attachments anteriorly: frontalis posteriorly o...

Scalp haematoma

A scalp haematoma usually occurs following injury at delivery although they are increasingly seen with head trauma. Classification They can be subdivided by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull periosteum (this mnemonic is hel...

Ferruginous body

A ferruginous body is a histological finding in interstitial lung disease that is a result inorganic dust inhalation. Macrophage ingestion of the inorganic fibre results in a fibrotic reaction with encasement of the fibre in iron-rich material that is derived from proteins such as ferritin and ...

Inorganic dust

Inorganic dust types are derived from mineral rather than biological elements (organic compounds). Inhalation of these dusts may result in lung disease (pneumoconiosis), often after years of cumulative exposure. The commonest inhaled dusts that cause disease are asbestos, silica and coal dust. ...

Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus clavatus is one of the species of Aspergillus that can cause pathology in humans. It is allergenic and causes a hypersensitivity pneumonitis called malt-workers lung. See also Aspergillus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus flavus is a fungus and one of the species of Aspergillus that is common in the environment and responsible for pathology in humans. It is the second most common cause of pulmonary aspergillosis (after Aspergillus fumigatus) and can additionally cause corneal, otomycotic, and nasoorb...

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