Items tagged “refs”

2,938 results found
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Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures. Classification Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types: type 1: minimally/nondisp...
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Night sweats

Night sweats, also known as sleep hyperhidrosis, are a common clinical complaint and may herald malignancy, especially lymphoma, or infections. Patients typically report waking up in the night with sweating so severe that their clothes and bed sheets are soaked through ("drenching sweats") and n...
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Achard Thiers syndrome

Achard-Thiers syndrome is a rare condition in elderly postmenopausal females, which is illustrated by androgen excess and insulin resistance secondary to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical presentation hirsutism in older females high serum glucose levels proteinuria glucosuria polyuria hy...
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Heidelberg bleeding classification

The Heidelberg bleeding classification categorizes intracranial hemorrhages occurring after ischemic stroke and reperfusion therapy. Anatomic description Class 1: hemorrhagic transformation of infarcted brain tissue 1a: HI1: scattered small petechiae, no mass effect 1b: HI2: confluent petech...
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Intussusception (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intussusception occurs when a loop of bowel is pulled into the lumen of a distal bowel loop, and is an important cause of acute abdominal pain, particularly in young children. Reference article This is a summary article; ...
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Subependymal cyst

Subependymal cysts may either be postnatally acquired post-hemorrhagic cysts or may be congenital (germinolytic). The congenital cysts may result from infection, ischemic injury, or hemorrhage. Epidemiology Subependymal cysts are most frequently seen in preterm infants, likely related to their...
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Acute encephalopathy

Acute encephalopathy is a general term that describes the clinical presentation of a patient with acute cerebral dysfunction. It is usually caused by viral infections, metabolic disorders, dysfunction of the liver or kidneys, or hypertension. Acute encephalopathy may occur in adults and childre...
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Age related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease that affects central vision. It occurs when aging causes damage to the macula. The macula is responsible for fine detailed vision also known as central vision.
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Posterior tibial line

The posterior tibial line is drawn along the posterior aspect of the distal tibial shaft on a lateral ankle x-ray and can be used to assess the sagittal alignment of the talus when comparing side-to-side and/or calculate the posterior tibial line-talar ratio 1,2.
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AP Meary's angle

AP Meary's angle or AP talus-first metatarsal angle is used to assess for midfoot abduction/adduction in pes planus and pes cavus to assist with pre-operative planning 1.  Measurement On a weight-bearing AP foot radiograph, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal to ...
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Fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle

The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is used to assess for a bunionette deformity. It should not be confused with the first intermetatarsal angle, used to assess for hallux valgus deformity.  Measurement The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is formed between the long axis of the fourth and...
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Comma sign of subscapularis tear

The comma sign of subscapularis tear was first described on arthroscopy but recognized later on MRI. The comma sign represents a full thickness partial width superior subscapularis tear along with torn superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligament insertional fibers vertically retracted via a...
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PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS)

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is a broad group of segmental overgrowth disorders that can occur with or without associated vascular anomalies, caused by activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene, which are also responsible for the vast majority of isolated lymphatic malformations and s...
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CSF alpha-fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) has been reported as a tumor marker for some intracranial tumors with yolk sac elements, and teratoma 1. Interpretation Elevation intracranial yolk sac tumor intracranial embryonal carcinoma congenital CNS tumors with yolk sac ...
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Pediatric shoulder (lateral view)

The lateral shoulder view in pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the shoulder joint, clavicle, scapula and proximal humerus.  Indications This projection is an orthogonal view of the AP shoulder and is useful in pediatric imaging for identifying potential fractures or dislocation...
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Double emulsion film

Double emulsion film is a type of x-ray film that contains emulsion on both sides of the base. They have a thin layer of emulsion on both sides to absorb light from the front and back of the intensifying screen with which they are meant to be used. Both emulsions contribute to the overall radiog...
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Pharyngeal muscles

There are multiple pharyngeal muscles that make up the structure of the pharynx. They comprise circular and longitudinal muscles whose overall function is to propel food into the esophagus. Gross anatomy Outer/circular muscles These muscles comprise the outer layer of musculature and act to c...
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Superior triangle sign (right lower lobe collapse)

The superior triangle sign is seen with complete right lower lobe (RLL) collapse alone or combined with right middle lobe collapse on PA chest x-rays. This sign can be a useful indirect sign of right lower lobe collapse where typical features are absent. Radiographic features Plain radiograph ...
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Notch sign (primary CNS lymphoma)

The notch sign refers to an abnormally deep depression at the tumor margin in contrast-enhanced MRI in primary CNS lymphoma 1. It is not an uncommon sign in primary CNS lymphoma and can be seen in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. It suggests an irregular growth pattern as wel...
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Gain of function

Gain of function represents the set of laboratory techniques thanks to which it is possible to genetically modify a pathogen (for example a virus) in order to provide it with new capabilities.The field of application of the gain-of-function, in fact, is virology, in order to improve the understa...