Items tagged “refs”
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Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, which is relatively commonly encountered in the healthcare environment. It has numerous species, including K. pneumoniae, K. aerogenes, and K. rhinoscleromatis 1. Klebsiella may cause a range of infections, most commo...
Neck axis distance
The neck axis distance is a measurement of acetabular version, although it has only been described in one study (c.2022) 1. Measurement On an AP pelvic x-ray, a line (N) is drawn along the axis of the femoral neck bisecting a circle of best fit drawn around the femoral head. The neck axis dist...
Cerebellomedullary cisterns are basal cisterns located laterally and posteriorly around the medulla, between it and the adjacent cerebellum. They are divided into paired lateral cerebellomedullary cisterns (located on either side of the medulla, directly inferior to the cerebellopontine cister...
Subtalar arthroereisis is a non-fusion surgical treatment of pediatric symptomatic flexible flatfoot (pes planus). The procedure involves the insertion of an implant into the subtalar joint to correct excessive hindfoot eversion. Procedure There are two techniques for subtalar arthroereisis 1:...
Protracted bacterial bronchitis
Protracted bacterial bronchitis is one of the most common causes of cough in children, particularly those aged <6 years. Is it characterized by a chronic wet cough with no associated cause and tends to respond to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Epidemiology Protracted bacterial bronchitis is th...
Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common autosomal dominant 1 condition resulting in hyperlipidemia. Epidemiology 1 in 200 individuals are estimated to be carriers of at least one gene associated with familial hypercholesterolemia 1. Pathology Features of hyperlipidemia such as early/exces...
Posterior meningeal artery
The posterior meningeal artery is the largest artery supplying the dura of the posterior cranial fossa. It may arise from the ascending pharyngeal artery, or less commonly, the occipital artery. The artery may enter the cranial vault through the jugular foramen, foramen magnum or the hypoglossal...
Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous disorder characterized by symmetric hyperpigmented velvety plaques on the neck, axillae, antecubital and popliteal fossae, inframammary, and groin areas. It is associated with acquired lipodystrophy. Pathology The benign form of acanthosis nigricans is assoc...
Reversible bronchiectasis is a term describing dilated bronchial tree in a patient with a collapsed (atelectatic) lobe. It is thought to be due to increased tension on the bronchial wall by the collapsed lung. The dilated bronchi usually return to their normal size when the lung expands. The phr...
Mandible (axiolateral oblique view)
The axiolateral oblique mandible view allows for visualization of the mandibular body, mandibular ramus, condylar process and mentum. Indications This projection is useful in identifying structural changes and displaced fractures of the mandible in a trauma setting, and in neoplastic or inflam...
Sharp mediastinum sign
The sharp mediastinum sign is a unique sign in neonatal chest x-rays for medial pneumothoraces or pneumomediastinum, especially as a complication to mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Radiographic features Plain radiograph As neonatal chest x-rays are taken with t...
Rectus capitis anterior muscle
The rectus capitis anterior muscle is a short muscle that belongs to the prevertebral and anterior neck muscles. It is located anterior to the vertebral column and stretches between the atlas and the base of the skull. Summary origin: lateral mass and transverse process of atlas (C1) insertio...
Sinus tarsi "see-through" sign
Sinus tarsi "see-through" sign is a radiological sign noted in pes cavus and/or hindfoot varus with the alignment of the sinus tarsi parallel to the x-ray beam resulting in the ability to "see-through" the sinus tarsi on lateral foot x-rays 1,2.
Middle clunal nerve
The middle clunal nerve is a sensory nerve that originates from S1-S4 1. It travels underneath the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL) and passes between the posterior superior iliac spine and posterior inferior iliac spine to course over the iliac crest 1. It supplies sensation to the lum...
Soleal sling syndrome
Soleal sling syndrome is a rare tibial nerve entrapment syndrome. More commonly the tibial nerve gets entrapped in the tarsal tunnel. In soleal sling syndrome, the nerve gets compressed under the tendinous arch at the origin of soleus muscle 1. Clinical presentation Can present with numbness i...
The intertransversarii muscles are small and short muscles found in the deepest layer of the intrinsic back muscles that stretch between the transverse processes of the adjacent vertebrae. Most intertransversarii pairs are located within the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine with some sma...