Items tagged “refs”

2,936 results found
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Endolymphatic sac tumor

Endolymphatic sac tumors are very rare, locally invasive tumors of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumors is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumors do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epidemiology ...
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Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are a heterogenous group of disorders that are characterized by excess infiltration of eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1: idiopathic: unknown causes secondary: known causes eosinophilic vasculitis: ...
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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterized by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement. Mutations in more than 20 different genes have been reported that contribute to the disease's...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (EFD), also known as metaphyseal flaring, refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relatively reduced constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis as a result of undertubulation.  The name refers to the resembl...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries can be subdivided into: acute injuries quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patellar tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patellar sleeve fractures chronic injuries  Osgood-Schlatter...
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External petrosal nerve

The external petrosal nerve is one of the three branches from the geniculate ganglion. It carries sympathetic fibers from the sympathetic plexus surrounding the middle meningeal artery, coursing extradurally laterally to the greater and lesser petrosal nerves on the petrous ridge's anterior surf...
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Extramural air cell

An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla rather than the ethmoidal bone are an example of extramural air cells.
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Facial nerve choristoma

Facial nerve choristomas are rare, being characterized by non-neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue. Facial nerve choristomas presumably can occur anywhere along the course of the facial nerve (CN VII), although the only cases reported are in the internal acoustic me...
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Fat halo sign (inflammatory bowel disease)

The fat halo sign (in colonic imaging) refers to a feature seen on CT abdominal scans, and represents infiltration of the submucosa with fat, between the muscularis propria and the mucosa. It is characterized by an inner (mucosa) and outer (muscularis propria and serosa) ring of enhancing bowel ...
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Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter in type 1 or low loop variety. As the right ure...
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Garden classification of hip fractures

The Garden classification of subcapital femoral neck fractures is the most widely used. It is simple and predicts the development of AVN 1,2. Garden described particular femoral neck and acetabular trabeculae patterns which can assist in recognizing differences within this classification system ...
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Gas in the urinary bladder

There are numerous causes of gas in the urinary bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include 1: iatrogenic indwelling urinary catheter is by far the most common cause cystoscopy, etc. emphysematous cys...
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Serous atrophy of bone marrow

Serous atrophy of bone marrow is a non-neoplastic bone marrow disorder that occurs with chronic illness and poor nutritional status. It is characterized by atrophy of the fatty marrow and loss of hematopoietic cells, replaced by an accumulation of extracellular mucinous substances. Terminology ...
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Germinoma

Germinoma is a term that if unqualified, usually refers to a tumor of the brain but can also refer to similar tumors of other regions particularly the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma: see WHO classification of CNS tumors All these tumors share...
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Groove for the popliteus tendon

The groove for the popliteus tendon is a normal variant and should not be mistaken for a fracture. Rarely an ossicle called a cyamella is seen here, located within the popliteus tendon.
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Hemangioendothelioma

A hemangioendothelioma is a tumor derived from blood vessels.  Pathology Subtypes Subtypes dependent on location include hemangioendothelioma (MSK) hemangioendothelioma of liver See also epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
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Musculoskeletal hemangioendothelioma

Hemangioendotheliomas, along with hemangiopericytomas and angiosarcomas, are tumors that arise from vascular structures. In the case of hemangioendotheliomas, the cell of origin is the endothelial cell, and they range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. Epidemiology They typically occur ...
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Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases

Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases are considered to represent between 3-14% of all cerebral metastases (cf. 1-3% of gliomas are hemorrhagic). These classically originate from: melanoma renal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma thyroid carcinoma: papillary carcinoma of the thyroid has the highe...
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Varicella pneumonia

Varicella pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonia. It is a common cause of multiple small round calcific lung lesions. Varicella-zoster virus most commonly causes self-limited benign disease (chickenpox) in children. However, in adults it tends to cause significant complications including varicel...
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Hydrocolpos

Hydrocolpos is characterized by an expanded fluid-filled vaginal cavity. When it is associated with distention of the uterine cavity, the term hydrometrocolpos should then be used. It may present in neonate, infancy or in an adolescent girl with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarch...