Items tagged “refs”

2,938 results found
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Hydrometrocolpos

Hydrometrocolpos is characterized by an expanded fluid filled vaginal cavity with associated distention of the uterine cavity. It may present in infancy with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarche. Pathology Etiology imperforate hymen (most common) also involves the upper portion...
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Hyperostosis frontoparietalis

Hyperostosis frontoparietalis is a variant of the more common and more well known hyperostosis frontalis interna. As the name suggests, there is benign overgrowth exclusively of the inner table of the frontal bones and parietal bones. Characteristic features include sparing of the midline and ou...
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Hyperostosis of the skull (differential)

Hyperostosis of the skull has many causes, broadly divided into focal or diffuse. Diffuse Paget disease of bone metastatic disease, especially prostate carcinoma chronic, severe anemia hyperparathyroidism acromegaly osteopetrosis hyperostosis frontalis interna long-term phenytoin use g...
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Hypertrophic olivary degeneration

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare condition characterized by a unique pattern of trans-synaptic degeneration. It is caused by a lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, resulting in hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. The three corners of the triangle are: red n...
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Incus

The incus (plural: incudes) is the middle of the three ossicles articulating with the head of the malleus anteromedially, forming the incudomalleolar joint, and the stapes inferomedially, forming the incudostapedial joint. Four parts of the incus are named: body contiguous with the short and ...
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Intracranial arteries (variants)

Intracranial arterial variants, of which there are many, are collectively common. Their clinical significance may be variable but knowledge and recognition of these variants is fundamental, especially if surgical or endovascular treatments (e.g. for acute stroke, aneurysms or other vascular path...
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Intracranial hemorrhage

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a collective term encompassing many different conditions characterized by the extravascular accumulation of blood within different intracranial spaces. A simple categorization is based on location: intra-axial hemorrhage intracerebral hemorrhage basal ganglia ...
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Intraosseous ganglion

Intraosseous ganglion cysts, intraosseous ganglia or juxta-articular bone cysts are benign tumor-like non-neoplastic lesions occurring in the subchondral regions of bone in the absence of degenerative or inflammatory arthritis 1,2. Epidemiology  Intraosseous ganglion cysts tend to occur in mid...
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Kerr kink

The Kerr kink is a sign of renal tuberculosis. Scarring in the adjacent tissues due to chronic inflammation leads to a sharp kink at the pelviureteric junction (PUJ). History and etymology William "Bill" K Kerr, a Canadian urologist, described his eponymous sign in 1967 3.
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Glenoid labrum variants

There are a number of glenoid labral variants, whose importance is mainly due to the fact that the unwary may misinterpret them as pathology (e.g. Bankart lesion or labral tear). These include: Buford complex sublabral foramen superior sublabral sulcus pseudo-SLAP lesion
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Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It also vascularizes the VII and VIII cranial nerves. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), althou...
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Large intestine

The large intestine (also known as the large bowel) is a 1.5 meter muscular tube that extends from the cecum to the rectum. It has three outer longitudinal muscular layers called taenia coli, which are about 30 cm shorter than the length of the large bowel causing characteristic sacculations int...
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Superior orbital fissure (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for all structures passing through the superior orbital fissure (superior to inferior) is: Long Fissures Seem To Store Only Nerves, Instead Of Arteries, Including Ophthalmic Veins Mnemonics for the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure include: Lazy French Tarts Sit N...
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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning or plumbism is a multisystem condition due to the way in which lead interferes with the function of virtually every organ system. Plumbism most severely manifests due to its devastating effects on the CNS, but it also has important deleterious consequences on the skeletal, renal, ...
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Limbus vertebra

A limbus vertebra is a well-corticated unfused secondary ossification center of the vertebral body, usually of its anterosuperior corner, that occurs secondary to herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the vertebral body endplate beneath the ring apophysis (see ossification of the vertebrae)...
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AAST liver injury scale

The AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale, most recently revised in 2018, is the most widely used liver injury grading system 3. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criteria for visceral ...
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Low endplate signal on T1

Several conditions may give vertebral endplate T1 low signal on MRI. They include:   ankylosing spondylitis vertebral metastases disc infection haemodialysis
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Lower lobe bronchiectasis

The distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Lower lobe bronchiectasis is the commonest zonal predilection in bronchiectasis 2. It is mostly idiopathic but can be typically seen in post infective bronchiectasis recurrent childhood infections aspiration ...
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Lymphocytic hypophysitis

Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an uncommon non-neoplastic inflammatory condition that affects the pituitary gland. It is closely related to other inflammatory conditions in the region, namely orbital pseudotumor and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Epidemiology Lymphocytic hypophysitis is seen most frequent...
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Radiolucent lesions of the mandible (differential)

Lucent lesions of the mandible are not uncommon and may be the result of odontogenic or non-odontogenic processes. Lucency may be conferred by a cystic process (e.g. periapical cyst) or a lytic process (e.g. mandibular metastases). Pathology Etiology Odontogenic periapical (radicular) cyst (...