Items tagged “refs”

2,936 results found
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Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome, also known as herpes zoster oticus or Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2, is shingles of the facial nerve. It is due to reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion. Clinical presentation Ramsay Hunt syndrome classically presents with a triad of 3,...
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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection.  Epidemiology Risk factors include: children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1 poverty, overcrowding Clinical presentation...
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Ring artifact

Ring artifacts are a CT phenomenon that occurs due to the miscalibration or failure of one or more detector elements in a CT scanner. Less often, it can be caused by insufficient radiation dose or contrast material contamination of the detector cover 2. They occur close to the isocenter of the s...
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Rotator cuff

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons, important in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint: supraspinatus: abduction infraspinatus: external rotation teres minor: external rotation subscapularis: internal rotation Other structures that stabilize the glenohumeral joint in...
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Rotator cuff interval

The rotator cuff interval is a triangular space between the tendons of subscapularis and supraspinatus and the base of the coracoid process. Gross anatomy The combination of the coracohumeral ligament and superior glenohumeral ligament has a complex relationship with the long head of biceps te...
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Rotator cuff tear grading (MRI)

One method of grading rotator cuff tears on MRI is as follows: grade 0: normal grade I: increased T2 signal with normal morphology grade II: increased T2 signal with abnormal morphology (thickening, or irregularity of the tendon) grade III: defined tear (e.g. partial or full-thickness, compl...
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Salter-Harris fracture classification (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the Salter-Harris classification system are: SALTR SMACK SMETI Fortunately, this is also the order of prognosis (from best to worse) Mnemonics SALTR S: slipped (type I) A: above or away from joint (type II) L: lower (type III) T: through or transverse o...
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Oral cavity carcinoma (staging)

Oral cavity carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of carcinomas involving the oral cavity. The vast majority of applicable cases are squamous cell carcinomas, but other epithelial and minor salivary gland cancers are also included. The following article reflects the 8th edition published by th...
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Saber-sheath trachea

Saber-sheath trachea refers to a diffuse coronal narrowing of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea with the concomitant widening of the sagittal diameter. It is not uncommon and is pathognomonic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1.  The sagittal:coronal diameter is over 2:1 2...
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Shenton line

Shenton line is an imaginary curved line drawn along the inferior border of the superior pubic ramus (superior border of the obturator foramen) and along the inferomedial border of the neck of femur. This line should be continuous and smooth1.   Interruption of the Shenton line can indicate (in...
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Sigmoid plate

The sigmoid plate is variously described as the plate of bone between the jugular bulb and the middle ear cavity (as shown in first image) or more generally as the thin bone separating the sigmoid sinus from adjacent structures (especially mastoid air cells). In the case of the former, the struc...
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Sinotubular junction

The sinotubular junction is the region of the ascending aorta between the aortic sinuses (of Valsalva) and where the normal tubular configuration of the aorta is attained. It marks the junction of the aortic root and ascending aorta.
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Small bowel

The small bowel (or small intestine) is the section of bowel between the stomach and the colon. It has distinctive mucosal folds, valvulae conniventes, and is made up of three functional units: duodenum jejunum ileum Terminology Although anatomically it is stated that the duodenum forms the...
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Solitary bone cyst of the mandible

Solitary bone cysts of the mandible (also known as traumatic bone cyst of the jaw, hemorrhagic cyst of the mandible, extravasation cyst, progressive bone cavity or unicameral bone cyst) are an uncommon nonepithelial lined lucent mandibular lesion. It is one of a myriad of potential mandibular le...
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Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system allocates points for various angiographic features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a score that predicts the morbidity/mortality risk of surgery 5.  Grading The grading system requires correlation between C...
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Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardrop...
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Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures. Three approaches to the epidural space exist:​ caudal epidural injection (via the sacral hiatus) interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar ...
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Spinal epidural mass

The differential diagnosis for a spinal epidural mass includes: epidural metastasis epidural abscess herniated nucleus pulposus epidural hematoma epidural arteriovenous malformation epidural angiolipoma epidural lipomatosis extramedullary hematopoiesis
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Spinal interventional procedures

Back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. Lumbar degenerative facet joints, lumbar disc disease and sacroiliac joint pain account for nearly 70% of cases of lower back pain. Unfortunately, as the incidence of degenerative changes in the spine is so high (e.g. disc abnorm...
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Stapedius muscle

The stapedius muscle is the tiny muscle in the middle ear that attaches to the posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes, which when contracted dampens vibrations passed to the cochlea via the oval window. The muscle is anchored within the petrous temporal bone and emerges anteriorly into the m...