Items tagged “refs”

2,938 results found
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Stapes

The stapes (plural: stapedes) is the smallest and most medial of the three middle ear ossicles. It is the smallest bone in the standard human skeleton. It has a base (foot piece/footplate) that articulates with the oval window and conducts vibrations to the cochlea. The base is attached to the ...
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String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small bowel loops string of pearls sign on cerebral MRI in deep border zone infarction string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for ang...
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Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid is one of the more frequent complications of acute otomastoiditis and results in coalescent mastoiditis extending through the external cortex of the mastoid sinus. This can occur in any direction: postauricular: common as the bone is particularly thin ("Mace...
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Pituitary region masses

A simple and popular mnemonic to remember the common suprasellar/parasellar/intrasellar masses is SATCHMO. The more comprehensive list includes: tumors pituitary adenoma (commonest in the adult population) pituitary macroadenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituitary lymphoma...
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car Two Zombies Buggered...
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Threatened miscarriage

Threatened miscarriage (or threatened abortion) is mainly a clinical term, used when a pregnant woman in first 20 weeks of gestation presents with spotting, mild abdominal pain and contractions, with a closed cervical os 3. Epidemiology It occurs in 20-25% of pregnancies and is associated with...
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Differentiated thyroid cancer (staging)

Differentiated thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committ...
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Toothpaste sign

The toothpaste sign in spinal imaging represents an extrusion of an intervertebral disc into the epidural space. It is called after the shape of extruded material relatively to the parent disc in a sagittal plane.
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Transependymal edema

Transependymal edema, also known as interstitial cerebral edema or periventricular lucency (PVL), is a type of cerebral edema that occurs with increased pressure within the cerebral ventricles. FLAIR is the most sensitive MRI sequence for detection. Pathology The ventricular ependymal lining i...
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Triangle of Guillain and Mollaret

The triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, also known as the dentatorubro-olivary pathway, has three corners 1: red nucleus inferior olivary nucleus contralateral dentate nucleus Rubro-olivary fibers descend from the parvocellular division of each red nucleus along the central tegmental tracts t...
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True aneurysm

In a true aneurysm, the aneurysm is bound by all three layers of the vessel wall (intima, media and adventitia). The wall may be attenuated. The risk of rupture is proportional to the size of the aneurysm. Pathology Etiology congenital atherosclerosis hypertension vasculitis hereditary...
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Trumpeted internal acoustic meatus sign

A trumpeted internal acoustic meatus (IAM) is an indirect sign of a vestibular schwannoma and is useful in helping to differentiate between one and other cerebellopontine angle entities, especially from a meningioma which typically does not extend into the meatus and is more often associated wit...
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Tuberculous otomastoiditis

Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an uncommon form of acute otomastoiditis that occurs secondary to tuberculosis infection, although its frequency is increasing as a result of greater population of immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Classically it is described as presenting with pa...
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Tympanic membrane retraction

Tympanic membrane retraction usually occurs when a portion of the tympanic membrane becomes weakened and is pulled inwards by the negative pressure within the middle ear.  Pathology As the tympanic membrane is pulled inwards (medially), it can become draped over the ossicles, resulting in a va...
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Unilateral facet dislocation

Unilateral facet dislocation is a relatively stable type of facet dislocation. Pathology Mechanism Flexion/distraction associated with rotation. The inferior articular facet of vertebral above moves over the superior facet of the vertebral below and becomes locked. It usually affects C4-C5 or...
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Upper extremity fractures

The upper limb sustains a wide variety of fractures that range significantly in demographics, treatment and functional impact.  clavicle clavicular fracture acromio-clavicular dislocation scapula blade of scapula fracture glenoid fracture acromial fracture coracoid process fracture hume...
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Upper lobe bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Upper lobe bronchiectasis is typically seen in: cystic fibrosis tuberculosis Rarely it may be seen with non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (e.g. MAC infection 2). Traction bronchiectasis in the upper lobes c...
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Ductus deferens calcification

Calcification of the ductus deferens (vas deferens) can result from: diabetes mellitus: most common 4 normal aging chronic infection/inflammation: tends to be irregular (unilateral and segmental) unlike diabetic calcification 3 tuberculosis syphilis gonorrhea schistosomiasis chronic urin...
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Vertebral anomalies

The vertebral column is affected by a range of anatomical variants of the body and/or neural arch as well as accessory ossicles. Knowledge of basic vertebral anatomy and ossification is essential for describing and understanding the range of anomalies. Variant anatomy Vertebral body hemiverte...
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Vestibulocochlear nerve

The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth (CN VIII) cranial nerve (TA: nervus vestibulocochlearis or nervus cranialis VIII). It exits the brainstem through the cerebellopontine angle, passing into the internal acoustic meatus as part of the acousticofacial bundle. Within the internal acoustic me...