Items tagged “rewrite”

148 results found
Article

Medullary cystic disease complex

Medullary cystic disease complex belongs to group of pediatric cystic renal diseases characterized by progressive tubular atrophy with glomerulosclerosis (chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis) and multiple small medullary cysts.  Epidemiology There is no recognized gender predilection. Clinic...
Article

Tracheomalacia (differential)

A dilated trachea has numerous causes, and in almost all cases represents tracheomalacia (increased size and increased compliance). As is almost always the case, various diameters have been used. Typical figures include >26 mm in men, >23 mm in women or >30 mm for both genders ref. Although ma...
Article

Femur

The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. Gross anatomy It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. Proximal portion The upper extremity is composed of the head, n...
Article

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), often shortened to reflux disease, is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus across the lower esophageal sphincter. Epidemiology It affects 10% to 20% of the adult population in ...
Article

Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Terminology A portal venous system connects two capillary beds, meaning one organ / organ sys...
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Lateral ventricle

The lateral ventricles are paired CSF-filled spaces in the cerebrum and part of the ventricular system of the brain. They are larger than the third or fourth ventricles but can be asymmetrical. Each has five divisions, including three horns that project into the lobe after which they are named: ...
Article

Posterior fossa astrocytoma

Posterior fossa astrocytomas, those arising either from the cerebellum or from the brainstem are most frequently seen in children. Approximately 60% of all pediatric astrocytomas are found in the posterior fossa (20% brainstem, 40% cerebellum). Many types of astrocytoma are found in the posteri...
Article

Stellate ganglion block

The stellate ganglion block describes blockade of the cervicothoracic sympathetic chain which provides post-ganglionic sympathetic efferents to the head, neck and upper extremities. Neural blockade is typically achieved by deposition of local anesthetic between the prevertebral fascia and longus...
Article

Intramural bowel gas

Intramural bowel gas, also known as pneumatosis intestinalis, refers to the clinical or radiological finding of gas within the wall of the bowel. Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoid...
Article

Fabry disease

Fabry disease, also known as Anderson-Fabry disease, is a multisystem disorder resulting from an X-linked inborn error of metabolism and is a lysosomal storage disorder. The disease results from genetic mutations in the gene GLA that cause decreased or absent expression of hydrolase alpha-galact...
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Osteoarthritis of the hip (grading)

Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to its severity. Classification Plain radiograph Different grading schemes are described for plain radiographs of the hip: grade 0: normal grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes grade 2: definite joint space narrowin...
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Meckel cave lesions (differential)

Meckel cave lesions are numerous. The aim of this article is to list them in an easy way for revision and assessment of differential diagnosis.  Neoplastic Meckel cave tumors account for only 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. The most common histologies are: trigeminal schwannoma: most common,...
Article

Inevitable miscarriage

Inevitable miscarriage refers to the presence of an open internal os in the presence of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. Most often the conception products are not expelled and intracervical contents are present at the time of examination. A sac may be seen low within the uterus and...
Article

Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a spectrum of obstructive airway diseases. It includes two key components which are chronic bronchitis-small airways disease and emphysema.  Epidemiology The most common cause has historically been (and unfortunately continues to be) ciga...
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Barium swallow

Barium swallow is a dedicated test of the pharynx, esophagus, and proximal stomach, and may be performed as a single or double contrast study. The study is often "modified" to suit the history and symptoms of the individual patient, but it is often useful to evaluate the entire pathway from the ...
Article

Pelvic protocol for endometriosis (MRI)

Evaluation of known endometriosis with MRI requires a slightly different protocol to a routine pelvic MRI (see pelvic MRI protocol: routine) and should probably be reserved for known cases of endometriosis rather than for the assessment of pelvic pain. IV or IM Buscopan is administered to reduc...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumors (e.g. endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) and uncommonly other blood-containing lesions (e.g. hemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts). The sign is seen on T2-weighted sequences of lesio...
Article

Pancreatic metastases

Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and are only found in a minority (3-12%) of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy. They account for only 2-5% of all pancreatic malignancies. Epidemiology Demographics will match those of the primary tumor, but in general, will be in elderly ...
Article

Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting emergency medical scenario with very high mortality unless its etiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmo...