Items tagged “rewrite”

149 results found
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Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. This provides localized targeted internal radiation. Brachytherapy has been...
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Bony sequestrum

A bony sequestrum (pl. sequestra) is a piece of devascularised bone that becomes separated from the remainder of the bone in chronic osteomyelitis and acts as a nidus for ongoing infection 1. Pathology In the course of the inflammatory response in an infected bone, there is increased osteoclas...
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WAGR syndrome

WAGR syndrome or complex stands for: Wilms tumors (greatly increased risk) aniridia genitourinary anomalies intellectual disability Pathology Genetics Occurs from a mutation related to chromosome 11p13 3 which is in close proximity to the WT1 gene.
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Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or TIPSS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient...
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Anode (x-ray tube)

The anode (or anticathode) is the component of the x-ray tube where x-rays are produced. It is a piece of metal, shaped in the form of a bevelled disk with a diameter between 55 and 100 mm, and thickness of 7 mm, connected to the positive side of the electrical circuit. The anode converts the en...
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Pneumatosis coli

Pneumatosis coli is a descriptive sign presenting radiographically as intramural gas limited to the colonic wall.  Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Pneumatosis in...
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Scleroderma (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations of scleroderma can occur in up to 90% of patients with scleroderma 2 with the most common site of gastrointestinal involvement being the esophagus. After skin changes and Raynaud phenomenon, gastrointestinal changes are the third most common manifestation of scler...
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History of ultrasound in medicine

The first written document dealing with the use of waves in spatial orientation dates back to 1794, when an Italian physicist Lazzaro Spallanzani (“Opus coli di fisica”), analyzed the basic mechanisms of the navigation of flying bats in the dark, and rightly deduced that bats employed sound rath...
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Pulmonary necrosis

Pulmonary necrosis is seen in a variety of conditions, including 1:  pulmonary infections  Klebsiella pneumoniae - Klebsiella pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae - pulmonary haemophilus influenzae infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa - pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infe...
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Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms

When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include 1,2: size and shape sac dimensions (outer su...
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Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules. In al...
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Paratesticular tumors

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testis within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorized as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Etiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common parat...
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Seronegative spondyloarthritis

Seronegative spondyloarthritides, also known as spondyloarthropathies (SpA), are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes linked by common clinical features and immunopathologic mechanisms. The subtypes of spondyloarthritis are usually distinguished based on history and clinical findings. Terminolo...
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Echogenic renal pyramids (differential)

Echogenic renal pyramids in children can be due to many different causes.  Differential diagnosis Nephrocalcinosis Iatrogenic (most common cause) furosemide (frusemide) vitamin D steroids Non-iatrogenic idiopathic hypercalcemia Williams syndrome hyperparathyroidism milk-alkali syndrom...
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Facet joint

Facet joints, also known as apophyseal or zygapophyseal joints, are the synovial articulations of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and form part of the posterior column.  Gross anatomy They are symmetrical synovial-lined joints with a fibrous capsule that connect the articular facets of the...
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Pediatric urinary tract infection

Pediatric urinary tract infections are common and are a source of significant imaging in young children. Epidemiology Pediatric urinary tract infections affect up to 2.8% of all children every year, with approximately 2% of boys and 8% or more of girls developing a urinary tract infection at s...
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Ophthalmoplegia

Ophthalmoplegia describes the abnormal eye movement that occurs because of paralysis of one or more of the six extraocular muscles involved in eye movements. Classification can be based on the cause of the ophthalmoplegia or the directions of the affected movements. There are numerous causes of...
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Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and, therefore, represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Congenital abnormalities persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) Coats disease coloboma morning glory syndrome Degenerative conditio...
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Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II, also known as Langer-Giedion syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Pathology The effects are seen mainly on the skeletal system and primarily involves hair: "tricho-" nose: "rhino-" digits of the hands and feet: "-phalang...
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T2 shine through

T2 shine-through refers to high signal on DWI images that is not due to restricted diffusion, but rather to high T2 signal which 'shines through' to the DWI image. T2 shine through occurs because of long T2 decay time in some normal tissue. This is most often seen with subacute infarctions due ...