Items tagged “rewrite”

148 results found
Article

Boxer knuckle

Boxer knuckle (not to be confused with a boxer fracture) refers to an appearance when there is a disruption to the sagittal bands of the extensor hood, particularly over the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint. Epidemiology It is most common in the middle finger, and radial sided sagittal band inj...
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Medial collateral ligament injury grading

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are graded into three groups on MRI, much in the same way as many other ligaments: grade 1: (minor sprain) high signal is seen medial (superficial) to the ligament, which looks normal grade 2: (severe sprain or partial tear) high signal is seen medial ...
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Sprain vs strain

As petty as it sounds, medicine (and especially radiology) is all about precision in the terminology we use. Sprain and strain are often used interchangeably and often (randomly) incorrectly.  sprain refers to injury of ligaments.  strain refers to injury of muscles and tendons. A simple aide-...
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Breast MRI

Breast MRI is the most sensitive method (>90%) for the detection of breast cancer. Its role in diagnosis and management continues to evolve 13. Terminology Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI provides information about the morphology and function of a lesion with high sensitivity but moderate ...
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Chopart fracture-dislocation

Chopart fracture-dislocations occur at the midtarsal (Chopart) joint in the foot, i.e. talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints which separate the hindfoot from the midfoot. The commonly fractured bones are the calcaneus, cuboid and navicular. The foot is usually dislocated medially and superior...
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High-attenuation crescent sign

The high-attenuation crescent sign, also called the hyperdense crescent sign, represents an acute hematoma within either the mural thrombus or the aneurysm wall, especially when detected on unenhanced CT scans. It is a specific sign of impending abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture or so-call...
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Complex fibroadenoma

Complex fibroadenoma is a sub type of fibroadenoma harboring one or more of the following features: epithelial calcifications papillary apocrine metaplasia sclerosing adenosis and  cysts larger than 3 mm Epidemiology Complex fibroadenomas tend to occur in older patients (median age, 47 yea...
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Putty kidney

A putty kidney refers to a pattern of renal calcification associated with renal tuberculosis conventionally described on plain radiography. The calcification can be large, round or oval, dense or very homogeneous and ground glass-like, representing calcified caseous tissue within dilated calyces...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 3

BI-RADS 3 is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category is considered probably benign, with a risk of malignancy of > 0% and ≤ 2%4. Terminology BI-RADS 3 should not be utilized in the screening setting. It should be reserved for ...
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Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarize the clinical feat...
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Breast calcifications

Breast calcifications are deposits of calcium salts in the breast, which are radio-opaque on mammography. The majority are benign, but they can be associated with cancer. The ability to diagnose and appropriately manage the significant microcalcifications and differentiate them from innocuous fi...
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Juberg-Hayward syndrome

Juberg-Hayward syndrome (JHS), also known as the oro-cranio-digital syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the association of the following:  growth restriction microcephaly cleft lip and palate minor vertebral and rib anomalies 4 horseshoe kidneys 4 thumb anomal...
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Pregnancy associated breast cancer

Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is usually defined as a breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or one year following delivery. PABC occurs in one out of every 1500-10,000 pregnancies 5-6 and represents up to 3% of all breast malignancies. The incidence may be increasing due to many w...
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Digital breast tomosynthesis

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an imaging technique that allows a volumetric reconstruction of the whole breast from a finite number of low-dose two-dimensional projections obtained by different X-ray tube angles, with a geometric principle very similar to that applied in stratigraphic te...
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Multicentric breast cancer

A multicentric breast cancer is a term given to a breast cancer where there are two or more breast cancers separated by normal breast tissue (often taken as 5 cm of separation 4). It is related to but distinct from the term multifocal breast cancer. At a pathological level It can also mean 2 t...
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Comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ

A comedo-type ductal carcinoma in situ, also known as comedocarcinoma in situ, is a high grade subtype of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). It is the most aggressive of intraductal carcinomas. In 30% of cases it can be multicentric and/or multifocal. Diagnosis Comedo-type DCIS is diagnosed hist...
Article

Renal hypoplasia

Renal hypoplasia refers to a congenitally small kidney where there is essentially normal residual parenchyma but smaller calyces, lobules and papillae. This is in contrast to renal atrophy where renal development was initially normal but the kidney has become smaller secondary to various other p...
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Aliasing on MRI

Aliasing on MRI, also known as wrap-around, is a frequently encountered MRI artifact that occurs when the field of view (FOV) is smaller than the body part being imaged. The part of the body that lies beyond the edge of the FOV is projected onto the other side of the image 5. This can be correc...
Article

Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction is a common condition. Doppler ultrasound is a highly accurate means of assessing patients with erectile dysfunction.  Pathology Psychological factors (mental impulse) cause the transmission of parasympathetic impulses to the penis. This causes relaxation of arterioles and...
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Production of radioactive nuclei

Naturally occurring radioactive nuclei have a physical half life time of ~108 to 1010 years which makes them unsuitable for use in medical imaging. Thus radioactive nuclei used in medical practice are artificially synthesized. Production of these nuclei involve bombarding stable nuclei with pro...