Items tagged “rg_38_4_edit”

22 results found
Article

Cephalohaematoma

Cephalohaematomas are traumatic subperiosteal hematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound between the periosteum and cranium, and therefore cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal hematoma, which can cross sutures. ...
Article

Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance with an overall incidence of 1 in 2000-2500. 8% of cases are syndromic or famil...
Article

Fibromatosis colli

Fibromatosis colli is a rare form of infantile fibromatosis that occurs within the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Epidemiology There may be a slight male predilection. It typically presents a few weeks after birth. Clinical presentation Presentation is usually with torticollis and is most frequ...
Article

Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome (also known as postanginal septicemia) refers to thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein(s) with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemio...
Article

Lymphangioma

Lymphangiomas are benign lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. It is considered the lymphatic equivalent of a hemangioma of blood vessels.  This article focuses on the general features of lymphangiomas. For a specific discussion in other locations, please refer to the ...
Article

Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous multisystem disease with a wide range of clinical and radiographic manifestations.  Individual systemic manifestations are discussed in respective articles:  pulmonary and mediastinal manifestations cardiac manifestations  musculoskeletal manifest...
Article

Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TA), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is thou...
Article

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC) are the most common type of congenital neck cysts and pediatric neck masses. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities including ultrasound, CT and M...
Article

Sarcoidosis (thoracic manifestations)

Pulmonary and mediastinal involvement of sarcoidosis is extremely common, seen in over 90% of patients with sarcoidosis. Radiographic features are variable depending on the stage of the disease.  For a general discussion, please refer to the parent article: sarcoidosis. Epidemiology Pulmonary...
Article

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Epidemiology Japan has the highest incidence in the world, with an annual incidence of 300/100,000 children under the ag...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcomas (head and neck)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck represent a large proportion (~40%) of all rhabdomyosarcomas and are the most common soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck. For a general discussion of this tumor, please refer to rhabdomyosarcoma. Pathology There are usually of the embryonal in cell ...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Sarcoidosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis is a manifestation of sarcoidosis which is often asymptomatic, although can be associated with high mortality 8. Autopsy studies show prevalence of ~25% cardiac involvement, yet only 5-10% are found symptomatic 1,2.  Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder chara...
Article

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously known as the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), refers to a small to medium vessel necrotizing pulmonary vasculitis. It is also classified under the spectrum of eosinophilic lung disease and as a type of pulmonary angiitis and granuloma...
Article

Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in T...
Article

Cardiac fibroma

Cardiac fibromas, also known as cardiac fibromatosis, are benign congenital cardiac tumors that usually manifest in children.  Epidemiology Cardiac fibromas are tumors that primarily affect children (most cases are detected in infants or in utero) with a ratio of 4:1 compared with adults 5. Th...
Article

Subgaleal hematoma

Subgaleal hematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It is a rare but possibly lethal emergency. Epidemiology Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10 000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and f...
Article

Epidermal inclusion cyst

Epidermal inclusion cysts or epidermal cysts are common cutaneous lesions that represent proliferation of squamous epithelium within a confined space in the dermis or subdermis. Terminology These are occasionally termed sebaceous cysts, although this is a misnomer as the lesion does not origin...
Article

Left ventricular assist device

Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are mechanical circulatory support device that are surgically implanted to aid pumping blood in patients with severe refractory cardiac failure. It may be used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy in patients who are not a trans...
Article

Parachute device

A parachute device or ventricular partitioning device is a percutaneously inserted cardiac device aimed at improving cardiac output and reducing cardiac remodelling in patients following myocardial infarction. Principle The device consists of an umbrella shaped frame with a overlying membrane,...

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