Items tagged “rg_39_3_edit”

10 results found

Twin pregnancy

Twin pregnancies are the most common multifetal pregnancies.  Epidemiology Multifetal pregnancies account for ~1% of all pregnancies but are seen in much higher numbers in populations where in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a common practice. Classification A twin pregnancy can be broadly cate...

Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation is used in a variety of clinical settings, predominantly in patients with poorly controlled movement disorders. Although effective, its exact mode of function continues to be poorly understood 2.   Careful patient selection and target selection are essential if the proced...

Uterine artery flow notching

Uterine artery flow notching refers to a phenomenon observed in uterine arterial Doppler ultrasound assessment. Pathology Associations The presence of notching after 22 weeks is associated with several other conditions including adverse pregnancy outcomes. These include pregnancy induced hyp...

Abnormal ductus venosus waveforms

Abnormal ductus venosus waveforms can arise in a number of conditions ranging from aneuploidy to vascular malformations and fetal tumors. "A wave" reversal can be seen in 5% of euploid fetuses 9. Pathology Abnormal waveforms in fetal ductus venosus flow assessment can occur in a number of situ...

Fetal ductus venosus flow assessment

Fetal ductus venosus flow assessment can be useful in a number of situations in fetal ultrasound: first-trimester screening for aneuploidic anomalies second and third-trimester scanning when there are concerns regarding intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetal cardiac compromise Of all ...

Umbilical venous flow assessment

Umbilical venous flow in the physiological situation comprises of a monophasic non-pulsatile flow pattern in the umbilical vein with a mean velocity of 10-15 cm/s. Since a normal umbilical vein supplies a continuous forward flow of oxygenated blood to the fetal heart, the presence of pulsatility...

Umbilical arterial Doppler assessment

Umbilical arterial (UA) Doppler assessment is used in surveillance of fetal well-being in the third trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler is a marker of placental insufficiency and consequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or suspected pre-eclampsia.  Umbilical arter...


The rhombencephalon (plural: rhombencephalons or rhombencephala), or hindbrain is a primary vesicle of the neural tube. Development During the fifth week of embryological development, the rhombencephalon further subdivides into the secondary brain vesicles, the metencephalon and the myelenceph...

Cavernous sinus hemangioma

Cavernous sinus hemangioma is an uncommon cause of a cavernous sinus mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to avoid unexpected surgical blood loss.  Epidemiology Cavernous hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus account for less than 1% of all parasellar masses 1. They have a predilection for m...

Laryngeal trauma

Laryngeal trauma is uncommon in the setting of external blunt or penetrating trauma. The larynx may also be injured internally, for example during endotracheal intubation. Clinical presentation Symptoms include hoarseness, laryngeal pain, dyspnea, and/or dysphagia. Also, stridor, hemoptysis, s...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.