Items tagged “rg_40_4_edit”

21 results found
Article

Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas, also known as adenomata, are the most common adrenal lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal m...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem necrotizing non-caseating granulomatous c-ANCA positive vasculitis affecting small to medium-sized arteries, capillaries, and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys. T...
Article

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) may be seen as part of widespread involvement in patients with disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis or more frequently as a distinct entity in young adult smokers. This article focuses on the latter.  Epidemiology Pulmonary Langerhans cell h...
Article

Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumor of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumors are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% are...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of lymphomatoid granulomatosis are important since the lung is one of the most frequent sites of involvement in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. It falls under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Pathology Some consider the condition to be midway between ov...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), which is a type of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis, are common; with lung involvement seen in about 95% of cases. For a general discussion of the condition, please refer to the main article on granulomatosis with polyangii...
Article

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously known as the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), refers to a small to medium vessel necrotizing pulmonary vasculitis. It is also classified under the spectrum of eosinophilic lung disease and as a type of pulmonary angiitis and granuloma...
Article

Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is caused by a direct chemical insult due to the entry of a foreign substance, solid or liquid, into the respiratory tract. Epidemiology Risk factors alcohol intoxication general anesthesia loss of consciousness structural abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus ne...
Article

Bronchocentric granulomatosis

Bronchocentric granulomatosis is a rare chronic condition where airways granulomas form in response to different insults. It is included in the spectrum of eosinophilic lung disease. Epidemiology It can affect a wide age spectrum of patients but is thought to peak between the 4th to 7th decade...
Article

Necrobiotic pulmonary nodules

Necrobiotic pulmonary nodules are sterile cavitating lung nodules associated with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (more often with ulcerative colitis than Crohn disease).  Epidemiology They are more common in men 5.  Associations Caplan syndrome Clinical presentation Us...
Article

Pulmonary hyalinising granuloma

Pulmonary hyalinising granulomas are rare, non-infectious, benign fibrosing lesions of the lung that can, sometimes, mimic pulmonary malignancy. Clinical presentation Most patients (~ 75% 6) with pulmonary hyalinising granulomas can be symptomatic with it. Commonly reported symptoms include va...
Article

Pulmonary talc granulomatosis

Pulmonary talc granulomatosis is one of the forms of talc-induced pulmonary disease and one of the excipient lung diseases. It is caused by talc particles mainly seen in patients injecting crushed methadone tablets intravenously.  As pulmonary talc granulomatosis is clinically and radiologicall...
Article

Granulomatous lung disease

Granulomatous lung disease refers to a broad group of infectious and non-infectious conditions characterized by the formation of granulomas. The spectrum includes: infectious mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection fungal pulmonary coccidioido...
Article

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare systemic disease, characterized by sarcoid-like granuloma formation, vasculitis and variable degrees of necrosis. It is sometimes classified under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Terminology This remains a controversial ent...
Article

Adrenal washout

Adrenal washout can be calculated using the density value of an adrenal mass on non-enhanced, portal venous phase and 15 minutes delayed CT scans (density measured in Hounsfield units (HU)). It is primarily used to diagnose adrenal adenoma. absolute washout [(HUportal venous phase) - (HUdelaye...
Article

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
Article

Chronic aspiration pneumonia

Chronic aspiration pneumonia occurs when recurrent episodes of aspirated particles lead to chronic granulomatous inflammation of the airways and lungs.  This article will focus on the chronic form of aspiration (c.f. acute aspiration pneumonia), for a broader discussion, please, refer to the pa...
Article

Acute aspiration pneumonitis

Acute aspiration pneumonitis occurs when solid or liquid ingested particles get into the airways and lungs leading to inflammation.  This article will focus on the acute form of aspiration (c.f. chronic aspiration pneumonia), mainly in regards to its radiographic features, for a broader discuss...
Article

Adrenal cyst

Adrenal cysts are rare lesions that are usually found incidentally on imaging performed for other reasons.  Epidemiology Adrenal cysts are reported to be rare with an incidence of <1% 1.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain or swelling, although a significant portion (~40%) ...
Article

Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease

Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GL-ILD) is a relatively recent term given to describe non-infectious diffuse lung disease complications that have been reported to traditionally develop in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients. Epidemiology Associations Although...

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