Items tagged “rg_40_5_edit”

13 results found
Article

Acromioclavicular joint injury

Acromioclavicular joint injuries, commonly shortened to ACJ injuries, are characterized by damage to the acromioclavicular joint and surrounding structures. Almost invariably traumatic in etiology, they range in severity from a mild sprain to complete disruption. Epidemiology Acromioclavicular...
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Clavicular fracture

Clavicular fractures are common and account for ~5% (range 2.6-10%) of all fractures 2,3. They usually require minimal treatment, which relies on analgesia and a collar-and-cuff. However, in some cases, open reduction and internal fixation are required. Epidemiology Clavicular fractures are mo...
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Acromioclavicular joint

The acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is a planar diarthrodial synovial joint of the pectoral girdle. Gross anatomy The acromioclavicular joint is between the small facet of the convex distal clavicle and flat anteromedial acromion. The articular surfaces are lined with fibrocartilage (like the st...
Article

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN), sometimes also referred to as perisalpingitis isthmica nodosa or diverticulosis of the fallopian tube, refers to nodular scarring of the fallopian tubes. In very early stages, the tubes may appear almost normal. As scarring and nodularity progress, the changes ...
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Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease refers to pelvic inflammatory disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Genital tract involvement may be present in ~1.5% of cases of those affected with tuberculosis 4. Pathology Infection almost always results from spread from an extrag...
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Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually-active women in their teens, with 75% of cases being ...
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Tuberculosis (fallopian tube)

Tuberculosis of the fallopian tube is one of the most common sites of tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease.  Clinical presentation Many patients may be asymptomatic, with the disease being discovered during the workup for infertility.  Signs and symptoms are often vague and can include acut...
Article

Parathyroid adenoma

Parathyroid adenomas are benign tumors of the parathyroid glands and are the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Epidemiology Associations There is an association with multiple endocrine neoplasia types I (MEN1) and IV (MEN4). Clinical presentation Patients typically present w...
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Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree and pancreatic ductal system. It can provide diagnostically-equivalent images to ERCP and is a useful technique in high risk patients to avoid significant ...
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Coracoid process fracture

Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or other scapular fractures, as well as glenohumeral dislocation or acromioclavicular joint injury. Epidemiology Coracoid fractures rep...
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Pectoral girdle

The pectoral (shoulder) girdle connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton and has a complex set of movements.  Gross anatomy The pectoral girdle comprises of the scapula and clavicle as well as the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints, and the scapulothoracic and suba...
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Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein​ antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) represents a group of inflammatory demyelinating disorders united by the presence of IgG antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). MOGAD represents a distinct clinical entity that clinically overlaps but is n...
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Neer classification of clavicle fractures

The Neer classification of clavicular fractures along with the AO classification system is one of the more frequently used classification systems when assessing clavicular fractures. Classification The classification system, broken into five categories communicates both the stability and treat...