Items tagged “second trimester”

16 results found
Article

Lemon sign

The lemon sign, noted on antenatal imaging, is one of the many notable fruit-inspired signs. It is a feature when there appears to be an indentation of the frontal bone (depicting that of a lemon). It is classically seen as a sign of a Chiari II malformation and also seen in the majority (90-98%...
Article

Nuchal fold

The nuchal fold is a normal fold of skin seen at the back of the fetal neck during the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased thickness of the nuchal fold is a soft marker associated with multiple fetal anomalies, and is measured on a routine second trimester ultrasound.  Terminology It shou...
Article

Fetal echocardiography views

A standard fetal echocardiogram consists of several specific views which can be obtained to optimise visualization of different structures and anomalies. They include: Basic views abdominal situs view / transverse view of abdomen four chamber view left ventricular outflow tract view (or a fi...
Article

Echogenic intracardiac focus

Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) is a relatively common sonographic observation that may be present on an antenatal ultrasound scan. Epidemiology They are thought to be present in ~4-5% of karyotypically normal fetuses. They may be more common in the Asian population 5.  Pathology They are...
Article

Antenatal soft markers on ultrasound

Antenatal soft ultrasound markers are fetal sonographic findings that are generally not abnormalities as such but are indicative of an increased age adjusted risk of an underlying fetal aneuploidic or some non chromosomal abnormalities. Most of the described features do not constitute a structu...
Article

Fetal ventriculomegaly

Fetal ventriculomegaly refers to the presence of dilated cerebral ventricles in utero. Important in itself, it is also associated with other CNS anomalies. Epidemiology Using the current sonographic cut-off criteria (see radiographic features below), the estimated prevalence may be at ~0.9% o...
Article

Absent umbilical arterial end-diastolic flow

Absent end-diastolic flow (AEDF) in an umbilical artery Doppler assessment is a useful feature which indicates underlying fetal vascular stress if detected in mid or late pregnancy. It is often classified as Class II in severity in abnormal umbilical arterial Dopplers 9. Pathology The presence...
Article

Absent fetal stomach on ultrasound (differential)

Non-visualization of the fetal stomach on ultrasound can occur with various physiological as well as pathological processes. It becomes a significant sonographic observation >14 weeks of gestation (about the time the fetus begins to swallow). Causes include: physiological emptying: transient ...
Article

Four chamber cardiac view (fetal)

The four chamber cardiac view is an important and routinely performed view in both fetal echocardiography as well as on a standard second trimester anatomy scan. Detectable pathology The four chamber view can only detect some of the congenital cardiac anomalies (~64% according to one study 2) ...
Article

Head circumference

Head circumference (HC) is one of the basic biometric parameters used to assess fetal size. HC together with biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL) are computed to produce an estimate of fetal weight. In the second trimester this may be extrapolated to an ...
Case

Omphalocele

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Ahmed Mahrous Saied
Published 01 Feb 2015
88% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Fetal ventriculomegaly (differential)

Fetal ventriculomegaly (ventricle width >10 mm) is an important finding in itself and it is also associated with other central nervous system abnormalities. For more information, see the main article fetal ventriculomegaly. Differential diagnosis Fetal ventriculomegaly can be thought of in ter...
Case

Absent ductus venosus, tricuspid regurgitation, cardiomegaly, chorioangioma

Absent ductus ven...
 Diagnosis certain
Dr Ersen Alp Özbalcı
Published 26 May 2015
94% complete
Ultrasound
Case

Fetal abdominal circumference

 Diagnosis not applicable
Dr Matt A. Morgan
Published 12 Jun 2015
44% complete
UltrasoundDiagram
Article

Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view the right ventr...
Case

Antenatal unilateral talipes equinovarus

Adduction of the ...
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Ersen Alp Özbalcı
Published 24 Jan 2016
66% complete
Ultrasound

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