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Items tagged “shetty”

63 results found
Article

Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia is defined by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines as pneumonias that occur more than 48 hours after hospital administration but were not present at the time of admission. Epidemiology It can be a common cause of pneumonia in ...
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Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...
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Medial pneumothorax

Medial pneumothorax refers to the abnormal collection of air on medial aspect of the pleural cavity. This occurs when the quantity of air is small. Radiographic features Chest radiograph (supine) Seen as a linear lucent area along the medial aspect of lung at the interface of the pleural surf...
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Diffuse pulmonary nodules (differential diagnosis)

A number of differentials must be kept in mind while approaching diffuse or multiple pulmonary nodules. Interpretation is easier if nodules are the only abnormality. Differential diagnosis These differentials can be narrowed down based on several criteria: Based on appearance  miliary nodule...
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Diffuse pulmonary nodules

Diffuse pulmonary nodules are usually seen as multiple pulmonary nodular opacifications on a HRCT chest scan. They can signify disease processes affecting either the interstitium or the airspace. They can range from a few millimeters to up to 1 cm and when very small and numerous there can be so...
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Splenic vein

The splenic vein drains the spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the stomach.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic vein is formed by splenic tributaries emerging at the splenic hilum in the splenorenal ligament at the tip of the tail of pancreas. It runs in the splenorenal ligame...
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Lateral patellar dislocation

Lateral patellar dislocation refers to lateral displacement followed by dislocation of the patella due to disruptive changes to the medial patellar retinaculum. Epidemiology Patellar dislocation accounts for ~3% of all knee injuries and is commonly seen in those individuals who participate in ...
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Computed tomography of the chest

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for mediastinum and gross evaluation of lungs high-resolu...
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X-ray artifacts

X-ray artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadows noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality, and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for fi...
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Esophageal duplication cyst

Esophageal duplication cysts are a type of congenital foregut duplication cyst. Epidemiology Less common compared to other foregut duplication cysts. There may be an increased male predilection 5. Clinical presentation Patients are generally asymptomatic but may complain of dysphagia due to ...
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Pediatric mediastinal masses

Pediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses middle mediastinal masses posterior mediastinal ma...
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Evaluation of recurrent bone tumors

Recurrent bone tumors are a common complication post curettage or resection. Radiographic features Radiographs taken pre- and postoperatively are sufficient for evaluation of recurrence based on the following features: osteolytic changes cortical changes matrix mineralization (characteristi...
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Bronchogenic cyst vs esophageal duplication cyst

Bronchogenic cysts and esophageal duplication cysts are embryological foregut duplication cysts and are also differential diagnoses for a cystic mediastinal mass. Differences Symptoms asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst symptomatic esophageal cyst in the case of peptic ulceration Plain radiograp...
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Elevated diaphragm

Elevated diaphragm refers to the symmetrical elevation of both domes of the diaphragm. Pathology Etiology There is some overlap with causes of an elevated hemidiaphragm.  Technical  supine position poor inspiratory effort Patient factors obesity pregnancy Diaphragmatic pathology paral...
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Extrarenal pelvis

Extrarenal pelvis refers to the presence of the renal pelvis outside the confines of the renal hilum; it is a normal anatomic variant. Epidemiology It is found in ~10% of the population 2.  Radiographic features Ultrasound An extrarenal pelvis usually appears dilated, erroneously suggesting...
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Stierlin sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Stierlin sign refers to repeated emptying of the cecum, seen radiographically as barium remaining in the terminal part of the ileum and in the transverse colon. This occurs due to irritation of the cecum caused by M. tuberculosis. It is not specific for tuberculosis and can also be seen in C...
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Fleischner sign (also known as the inverted umbrella sign), refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be con...
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Bladder and ureteric tuberculosis

Bladder and ureteric tuberculosis (TB) refers to infection of ureters and urinary bladder with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Radiographic features Ureteric Tuberculosis IVP characteristic beaded appearance due to alternate areas of strictures and dilatation (chronic state) CT acute: ureteral...
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Mondor sign (foot)

The Mondor sign is a sign seen clinically and on CT, and refers to a hematoma that is formed and extends distally along the sole of the foot 1. Its presence is considered pathognomonic for a calcaneal fracture 1. History and etymology It was named after Henri Mondor (1885-1962), a French surge...
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Weapon and munition inspired signs

Weapon and munition inspired signs include the following with their corresponding pathologic conditions: bayonet deformity Turner syndrome chondrodysplasia bullet-shaped vertebra mucopolysaccharidosis achondroplasia cannonball metastases metastases from renal cell carcinoma dagger sign ...

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