Items tagged “short article”

16 results found
Article

Romaña sign (Chagas disease)

Romaña sign, also known as the periorbital swelling syndrome, refers to periorbital swelling, palpebral edema and conjunctivitis seen 1-2 weeks following infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (causative agent in Chagas disease). When present it is diagnostic of acute Chagas disease. Romaña sign is a...
Article

Mediastinal mass

Mediastinal masses may be caused by a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies. It is helpful to identify the location of the mass since this significantly reduces the breadth of the differential diagnosis.  There are four conceptual compartments of the mediastinum which are di...
Article

Caterpillar sign (pyloric stenosis)

The caterpillar sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis. It refers to the appearance of the stomach on an upper gastrointestinal radiographic series or plain abdominal radiograph 1,2. On these imaging modalities in a patient with pyloric stenosis, the stomach appears distended...
Article

Vertebral body endplate

Vertebral body endplates are anatomically-discrete structures that form the interface between the vertebral bodies and the adjacent intervertebral discs. They are constituted peripherally by an epiphyseal bone ring and centrally by a cartilaginous layer. The cartilaginous layer is related to the...
Article

Trichoptysis

Trichoptysis (rare plural: trichoptyses) is an extremely rare symptom, whereby patients cough up hair. It is highly specific for rupture of a mediastinal teratoma into the tracheobronchial tree, however it is not pathognomonic as several articles claim (see below) 1,2. Nevertheless it remains a ...
Article

Superficial transverse perineal muscle

The paired superficial transverse perineal muscles (TA: musculus transversus superficialis perinei) lie in the perineum and are important for stabilizing the perineal body. Summary origin: ischial tuberosity insertion: the fibers of each muscle meet in the midline at the perineal body and dec...
Article

Main bronchi

The main bronchi is the collective term given to the left and right main bronchi which are formed by the bifurcation of the trachea at the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively.  The main bronchi form part of the lower respiratory tract and are conducting airways, i.e. ...
Article

Intestinal trunk

The intestinal trunk (TA: truncus intestinalis) is an unpaired lymphatic trunk which drains lymph (and chyle) from those portions of the GI tract which receive their blood supply from the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In the majority of individuals, the intestinal trunk drains into t...
Article

Lung bases

Anatomically, the lung bases refer literally to the inferior concave surfaces of the lungs which directly contact the hemidiaphragms. However many radiologists, and other clinicians, use the term more generally to refer to the basal region of the lung, which like the lower zones, has no formal ...
Article

Carcinoma of the Littré glands

Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1. Epidemiology There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...
Article

Modiolus (disambiguation)

The modiolus (plural: modioli) may refer to one of two different anatomical structures, both in the head and neck region: modiolus (cochlea) modiolus (mouth) History and etymology The Latin word, "modiolus" means hub of a wheel, and is well-named, as in both the cochlea and at the angle of t...
Article

Salt and pepper sign (Sjögren syndrome)

The salt and pepper sign has been used to describe the MRI appearance of the parotid gland in Sjögren syndrome. This pertains to a combination of punctate regions of calcification (pepper) and fatty replacement (salt) 1.
Article

Salt and pepper sign (autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease)

The salt and pepper sign has been given to the heterogeneous echotexture of the enlarged kidneys on ultrasound in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPCKD).
Article

Matrix (bone)

The matrix (plural: matrices) of the bone is used in a general pathological context to refer to the extracellular material in which the cellular components of the bone lie. Indeed the term extracellular matrix, often shortened to matrix, is used for the secreted extracellular components of any t...
Article

Oral tori

Oral tori (singular torus) are benign bony outgrowths from the maxilla and mandible: maxillary tori a.k.a. torus palatinus mandibular tori a.k.a. torus mandibularis Oral tori are subcategorised according to their shape 1: flat spindle nodular lobular Although not usually called tori, fur...
Article

Florid

Florid is a descriptive term often used in imaging reports to describe a process/appearance which is severe in degree, often following a subjective assessment.  History and etymology The term florid derives from the Latin term "floridus" meaning flowery, itself from "flos", a flower 2. From me...