Items tagged “shoulder”

178 results found
Article

Acromioclavicular injury

Acromioclavicular joint injuries are common and range from a mild sprain to complete disruption of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and injury to surrounding structures.  Clinical presentation Acromioclavicular joint injuries usually occur from a direct blow or following a fall onto the shoul...
Article

Rockwood classification of acromioclavicular joint injury

The Rockwood classification (1998) is the most common classification system in use for acromioclavicular joint injuries 3. This well known 6-type system is a modification of the earlier 3-class classification system described by Allman (1967) 2 and Tossy (1963). It takes into account not only t...
Article

Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

An anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesion is similar to a Bankart lesion, in that it too is usually due to anterior shoulder dislocation and involves the anterior inferior labrum.  Epidemiology It is often the result of chronic injury rather than acute dislocation;...
Article

Anterior shoulder capsular insertion

The anterior capsular insertion, unlike the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint capsule which has a constant scapular attachment along the margins of the glenoid labrum, inserts a variable distance from the labrum. The capsular insertions are classified as follows: type I: at or very near t...
Article

Bankart lesion

Bankart lesions are injuries specifically at the anteroinferior aspect of the glenoid labral complex, and represent a common complication of anterior shoulder dislocation. They are frequently seen in association with a Hill-Sachs lesion.  Terminology Strictly speaking, a "Bankart lesion" refer...
Article

Bennett lesion of the shoulder

Bennett lesions of the shoulder, also called thrower's exostosis refers to the mineralisation of the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.  Epidemiology The abnormality is more prevalent in overhead throwing athletes. Associations It is associated with posterior labral tears,...
Article

Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion

Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (BHAGL) lesion is just like its slightly shorter relative HAGL lesion, except as the name suggests a bony avulsion fracture is seen at humeral insertion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. It is often associated with a subscapularis tear, an...
Article

Buford complex

Buford complex is a congenital glenoid labrum variant where the anterosuperior labrum is absent in the 1-3 o'clock position and the middle glenohumeral ligament is thickened (cord-like) and originates directly from the superior labrum at the base of the biceps tendon and crosses the subscapulari...
Article

Coraco-clavicular ligament injury

Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament injury is common with shoulder trauma. It is considered part of the spectrum of acromioclavicular joint injuries 2 and is not often an isolated injury. It is also often injured with clavicular fractures.  This injury is easy to miss, especially with presence of an...
Article

Hill-Sachs lesion

Hill-Sachs lesions are a posterolateral humeral head compression fracture, typically secondary to recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations, as the humeral head comes to rest against the anteroinferior part of the glenoid. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid. Pathology I...
Article

Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament

Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) is, as the name suggests, avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) from its humeral insertion. It can be associated with a bony avulsion fracture in which case it is referred to as bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligamen...
Article

Glenoid labrum variants

There are a number of glenoid labral variants, whose importance is mainly due to the fact that the unwary may misinterpret them as pathology (e.g. Bankart lesion or labral tear). These include: Buford complex sublabral foramen superior sublabral sulcus pseudo-SLAP lesion
Article

Long head of biceps tendon dislocation

Dislocation of the long head of biceps tendon is one of the complications of shoulder injury. The long head of biceps (LHB) tendon is usually located inferiorly in the bicipital groove held there by the transverse humeral ligament. As it moves superiorly it arches through the rotator cuff interv...
Article

Milwaukee shoulder

Milwaukee shoulder refers to a destructive shoulder arthropathy due to deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and identification of these crystals in synovial fluid is the cornerstone of diagnosis. Epidemiology Milwaukee shoulder frequently affects older women, often with a history of trauma t...
Article

Os acromiale

Os acromiale is an anatomical variant and represents an unfused accessory centre of ossification of the acromion of the scapula. Epidemiology Os acromiale are relatively common, seen in ~8% (range 1-15%) of the population 1,2 and may be bilateral in 60% of individuals 5. Clinical presentation...
Article

Parsonage-Turner syndrome

Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an acute idiopathic brachial neuritis. Epidemiology There is male predominance (M:F 2:1 to 11.5:1) 1. Patients from 3 months to 85 years old have been reported, but the majority are between 3rd to 7th decade of life. Clinical presentation The presentation is typi...
Article

Calcific tendinitis

Calcific tendinitis (or calcific tendonitis) is a self-limiting condition due to deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within tendons, usually of the rotator cuff. It is a common presentation of the hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD).  Epidemiology Typically this condition affects...
Article

Rotator cuff interval

The rotator cuff interval is a triangular space between the tendons of subscapularis and supraspinatus and the base of the coracoid process. Gross anatomy It is roofed by the rotator interval capsule, which is principally made up of the coracohumeral ligament. It contains the tendon of the lon...
Article

Shoulder instability

Shoulder instability is tendency of the glenohumeral joint to sublax or dislocate due to loss of it's normal functional or anatomical stabilizers: static or anatomical: articular surface  labrum glenohumeral ligaments glenohumeral joint capsule coroacoacromial arch negative adhesive force...
Article

Sublabral foramen

A sublabral foramen or hole is simply separation of the labrum from the underlying glenoid. It is a labral variant of no clinical significance and can be confused with a SLAP lesion.  Sublabral foramen are located anterosuperiorly and can extend down to but not below the 3 o'clock position, whi...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.