Items tagged “shoulder”

215 results found

Acromioclavicular joint injury

Acromioclavicular joint injuries, commonly shortened to ACJ injuries, are characterized by damage to the acromioclavicular joint and surrounding structures. Almost invariably traumatic in etiology, they range in severity from a mild sprain to complete disruption. Epidemiology Acromioclavicular...

Rockwood classification of acromioclavicular joint injury

The Rockwood classification (1998) is the most commonly used (c.2024) classification system in use for acromioclavicular joint injuries 3,8,9.  Usage This well-known 6-type system is a modification of the earlier 3-class classification system described by Allman (1967) 2 and Tossy (1963). The ...

Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

An anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesion is similar to a Bankart lesion, in that it too is usually due to anterior shoulder dislocation and involves the anterior inferior labrum.  Epidemiology It is often the result of chronic injury rather than acute dislocation;...

Bankart lesion

Bankart lesions are injuries specifically at the anteroinferior aspect of the glenoid labral complex and represent a common complication of anterior shoulder dislocation. They are frequently seen in association with a Hill-Sachs defect.  Terminology Strictly speaking, a "Bankart lesion" refers...

Bennett lesion of the shoulder

Bennett lesions of the shoulder, also called thrower's exostosis refers to the mineralization of the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.  Epidemiology The abnormality is more prevalent in overhead throwing athletes. Associations It is associated with posterior labral tears,...

Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion

Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (BHAGL) lesion is just like its slightly shorter relative HAGL lesion, except as the name suggests a bony avulsion fracture is seen at humeral insertion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. It is often associated with a subscapularis tear, an...

Buford complex

Buford complex is a congenital glenoid labrum variant where the anterosuperior labrum is absent in the 1-3 o'clock position and the middle glenohumeral ligament is thickened (cord-like). It originates directly from the superior labrum adjacent to the bicipital labral complex and inserts onto the...

Coracoclavicular ligament injury

Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament injury is common with shoulder trauma. It is considered part of the spectrum of acromioclavicular joint injuries 2 and is not often an isolated injury. It is also often injured with clavicular fractures.  This injury is easy to miss, especially with the presence o...

Hill-Sachs defect

Hill-Sachs defects are a posterolateral humeral head depression fracture, resulting from the impaction with the anterior glenoid rim, and indicative of an anterior glenohumeral dislocation. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid. Terminology A Hill-Sachs defect is the term...

Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament

Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) is, as the name suggests, avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) from its humeral insertion. It can be associated with a bony avulsion fracture in which case it is referred to as bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligamen...

Glenoid labrum variants

There are a number of glenoid labral variants, whose importance is mainly due to the fact that the unwary may misinterpret them as pathology (e.g. Bankart lesion or labral tear). These include: Buford complex sublabral foramen superior sublabral sulcus pseudo-SLAP lesion

Long head of biceps tendon dislocation

Dislocation of the long head of biceps tendon is a common pathology that can be seen with the long head of the biceps tendon. When is not completely dislocated off the bicipital groove it is then termed subluxation of the long head of biceps tendon. Pathology The long head of biceps tendon is ...

Milwaukee shoulder

Milwaukee shoulder refers to a destructive shoulder arthropathy due to the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and identification of these crystals in synovial fluid is the cornerstone of diagnosis. Epidemiology Milwaukee shoulder frequently affects older women, often with a history of trau...

Os acromiale

Os acromiale is an anatomical variant and represents an unfused accessory center of ossification of the acromion of the scapula. Epidemiology Os acromiale is relatively common, seen in ~8% (range 1-15%) of the population 1,2 and can be bilateral in 60% of individuals 5. Clinical presentation ...

Parsonage-Turner syndrome

Parsonage-Turner syndrome, also known as neuralgic amyotrophy or idiopathic brachial plexitis, is an acute idiopathic and self-limited brachial neuritis. Epidemiology There is a male predominance (M:F 2-11.5:1) 1. Patients from 3 months to 85 years old have been reported, but the majority are ...

Calcific tendinitis

Calcific tendinitis, also known as calcific tendinopathy or tendonitis, is a self-limiting condition due to the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite within tendons, usually of the rotator cuff. It is a common presentation of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD).  Epidemiology Typic...

Rotator cuff interval

The rotator cuff interval is a triangular space between the tendons of subscapularis and supraspinatus and the base of the coracoid process. Gross anatomy The combination of the coracohumeral ligament and superior glenohumeral ligament has a complex relationship with the long head of biceps te...

Sublabral foramen

A sublabral foramen is simply a focal detachment of the anterosuperior labrum from the underlying glenoid and constitutes a normal labral variant of no clinical significance 1-4. On imaging, it might be confused with a SLAP lesion or an anterior labral tear 1. Gross anatomy Sublabral foramina...

Superior labral anterior posterior tear

Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are injuries of the glenoid labrum, and can often be confused with a sublabral sulcus on MRI.  Pathology SLAP tears involve the superior glenoid labrum, where the long head of biceps tendon inserts. They can extend into the tendon, involve the gl...

Biceps dislocation

  Diagnosis certain
Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
53% complete
MRI Annotated image