Items tagged “snippet”

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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...

Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterised by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...

Posterior cervical space

The posterior cervical space is one of the fat filled deep spaces of the neck located posterolaterally. Gross Anatomy Location posterolateral part of the neck extending from the mastoid tip and base of skull to the clavicles 1,2 most of the volume is in the infrahyoid neck, with some extensi...

Propagation speed

The propagation speed of sound waves through tissue is an important element of ultrasound scans. Ultrasound machines assume sound waves travel at a speed of 1540 m/sec through tissue 1. In reality, the speed of sound is affected by the density and elasticity of the medium through which it is tr...

Paradoxical middle turbinate

Paradoxical middle turbinate is a rare developmental cause of nasal obstruction. It refers to an inferomedially curved middle turbinate edge with theconcave surface facing the nasal septum, and usually occurs bilaterally. Epidemiology Paradoxical middle turbinate is a rarely encountered anomal...

Arcuate line

The arcuate line is situated at roughly one-third of the distance from the pubic crest to the umbilicus. It is the demarcation where the internal oblique and transversus abdominis aponeuroses of the rectus sheath start to pass anteriorly to the rectus abdominis muscle, leaving only the transvers...

Orbicularis oculi

Orbicularis oculi are facial muscles, a ring-like muscle functioning in a number of eyelid movements. Gross anatomy The orbicularis oculi are made up of three parts the orbital, palpebral and lacrimal parts. Each has defined actions.  The orbicularis oculi are secured to the medial and latera...

Enchondroma vs low grade chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between enchondromas and low-grade conventional chondrosarcomas is a frequent difficulty as the lesions are both histologically and radiographically very similar. It is important to remember, though, that differentiating between them may be a moot point since both can either be c...

Shoulder (lateral scapula view)

The lateral scapula shoulder or Y view is part of the standard shoulder series. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes. Excellent projection to see both the coracoid a...

Accessory soleus muscle

The accessory soleus muscle is an anatomical variant characterised by an additional distinct muscle encountered along a normal soleus muscle. It is uncommon with a prevalence of ~3% (range 0.7-5.5%). Summary origin: fibula, soleal line of the tibia, or the anterior surface of the soleus muscle...

Foveola pharyngica recess

A foveola pharyngica recess is one of the variants of the inferior median clival canal, thought to represent a remnant of the notocord. It represents a blind ending recess in the anteroinferior surface (nasopharyngeal) surface of the clivus 1,2. 

Radiography curriculum

The radiography curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent core radiographic knowledge. As radiography encompasses multiple modalities, its content is split into subsections based on the modality. Definition Topics pertaining to radiogra...

General radiography curriculum

The general radiography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific plain radiographic investigation, the anatomy covered, and how it is displayed via the chosen view. It outlines standard and modified radiographic technique to accommodate for a wide range o...

Computed tomography curriculum

The radiography computed tomography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific computed tomography investigations, the anatomy examined and the different protocols utilised for specific pathology. It is broken down into region specific sections and is cater...

Lateral spinothalamic tract

The lateral spinothalamic tract, also known as the lateral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anterolaterally within the peripheral white matter of the spinal cord. It is primarily responsible for transmitting pain and temperature as well as coarse touch.  The anterior sp...

Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...

Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine AP view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imag...

Breast echotexture (BI-RADS categories)

Breast echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon is usually classified into three categories 1: homogenous: fat homogenous: fibroglandular heterogenous See also breast density parenchymal patterns in breast imaging

Cloquet's canal

Cloquet's canal, also known as the hyaloid canal or Stilling's canal, is a transparent canal that runs from the optic nerve disc to the lens traversing the vitreous body. It serves as a perivascular sheath surrounding the hyaloid artery in the embryonic eye.

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum AP view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. It can be utilised in the event of trauma, or for evaluating degenerative change 1. The efficacy of this radiographical projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging th...

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