Items tagged “snippet”

52 results found

Groove for the popliteus tendon

The groove for the popliteus tendon is a normal variant and should not be mistaken for a fracture. Rarely an ossicle called a cyamella is seen here, located within the popliteus tendon.

Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...

Racing car sign (callosal dysgnesis)

The racing car sign refers to widely spaced lateral ventricles due to agenesis of the corpus callosum with intervening Probst bundles. Appearances on axial MRI or CT are reminiscent of a Formula One car seen from above, with the tyres represented by the widely-spaced frontal horns, and the dilat...

Superior vena caval duplication

Superior vena caval (SVC) duplication is the most common form of a left-sided SVC, where the normal right-sided SVC remains. The right SVC, however, can be smaller in approximately two-thirds of such cases 3. Pathology Results from failure of the embryonic left anterior cardiac vein to regress...

Triangle of Guillain and Mollaret

The triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, also known as the dentatorubro-olivary pathway, has three corners 1: red nucleus inferior olivary nucleus contralateral dentate nucleus Rubro-olivary fibres descend from the parvocellular division of each red nucleus along the central tegmental tracts t...

Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...

Primary cutaneous melanoma

Primary cutaneous melanoma is the most common subtype of malignant melanoma, a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes. Melanocytes predominantly occur in the basal layer of the epidermis but do occur elsewhere in the body. Primary cutaneous melanoma is by far the most common type of pri...

Post-traumatic cystic bone lesions

Post-traumatic cystic lesions of the bone, also known as fracture cysts, are benign, transient post-fracture cysts, which are relatively uncommon and usually appear about one-to-two months after traumatic fracture. Epidemiology They are rare, but may be under recognised, as monitoring after fr...

Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is an exceedingly common entity in the spine, encountered with increasing frequency throughout life and becoming almost universal in late adulthood to a varying degree. It is related to a combination of biomechanical stresses and genetic predisposition which alter...

Subscapularis recess

The subscapularis recess, also known as the superior subscapularis recess or subscapularis bursa, is a normal extension of the glenohumeral joint capsule in between the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments. Radiographic features MRI On sagittal oblique sequences and when distended with ...

Subcoracoid bursa

The subcoracoid bursa is located anterior to subscapularis and beneath the coracoid process and extends caudal to the conjoined tendons of coracobrachialis and short head of biceps brachii. Fluid in the subcoracoid bursa does not normally communicate with the glenohumeral joint but may communica...

Shoulder ligaments

There are many shoulder ligaments which each play an important role in shoulder joint stabilisation to various degrees: glenohumeral ligaments (GHL): superior, middle and inferior ligaments, connect the glenoid to the anatomical neck of the humerus, and play an important role in the stabilizati...

Breast MRI classification flowchart

The breast MRI classification flowchart (or Tree algorithm) is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five diagnostic criteria that are mainly consistent with BI-RADS though assigning diagnostic weights. Diagnostic cr...

Stellate ganglion

The stellate ganglion is formed by the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia and is located just anterior to the head of the first rib. It receives input from the paravertebral sympathetic chain and provides sympathetic efferents to the upper limbs, head, neck, and heart. The stellate ga...

Eddy currents

In accordance with Faraday's Law of Induction, rapidly changing gradient magnetic fields can induce stray currents, known as eddy currents, in the surrounding conducting materials. Eddy currents are unwanted as they generate their own magnetic fields, which oppose the original magnetic field vi...

Naso-orbital-ethmoid region

The naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) region or interorbital region simply refers to the space between the orbits.  Gross anatomy Boundaries anterior: frontal process of the maxilla, nasal process of frontal bone, nasal bone posterior: sphenoid sinus lateral: medial orbital wall superior: cribrif...

Left ventricular outflow tract

The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is considered represent the region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior cusp of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Its dimensions are often recorded in the TAVI work up studies.  Related pathology left ventricular outflow trac...

Longitudinal versus transverse petrous temporal bone fracture

Petrous temporal bone fractures are classically divided into longitudinal, transverse or mixed fracture patterns depending on the direction of fracture plane with respect to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Some features may aid in distinguishing them.                 Longitudinal pe...

Greater (descending) palatine artery

The greater (descending) palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery which passes through the greater palatine foramen to supply most of the hard palate. Gross anatomy After branching off from the third (pterygopalatine) part of the maxillary artery, the greater palat...

Scarpa's fascia

Scarpa's fascia is a membranous layer of superficial fascia that extends over the lower thoracic and anterior abdominal wall, anterior to the midaxillary lines. Here, fibrous septa of subcutaneous tissue are condensed beneath the fat into a thin but strong membrane. The fascia allows the subcuta...

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