Items tagged “sports”

28 results found
Article

Fatigue fracture

Fatigue fractures (also known as overuse fractures) are a type of stress fracture due to abnormal stresses on normal bone. They should not be confused with an insufficiency fracture, which occurs due to normal stresses on abnormal bone. Plain radiographs typically demonstrate a linear sclerotic ...
Article

Tendon pathology

A number of processes can cause tendon pathology and there is a discrepancy in terminology reflecting the unclear pathophysiology.  Terminology tendinopathy: general umbrella term for pain and swelling of a tendon 2,3 tendinitis previously popular term largely replaced by tendinopathy 3 now...
Article

Tennis leg

Tennis leg represents a myofascial or tendinous injury of the lower limb and, not surprisingly, is seen most frequently in tennis players. Epidemiology Although classically seen in people who play tennis, it can also be induced by playing squash, skiing, and athletics. Therefore, it typically ...
Article

Medial tibial stress syndrome

Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), also known as shin splints, describes a spectrum of stress injury that occurs at the medial tibia. This term is often used to indicate any type of tibial stress injury or the earlier manifestations of a tibial stress lesion before a fracture component can be...
Article

Distal intersection syndrome

The distal intersection syndrome relates to tenosynovitis of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon (3rd extensor compartment), where it crosses the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) tendons (2nd extensor compartment) 1. It is distinct from intersection syndrome which oc...
Article

Radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves: femoral component a line is drawn along the posterior cortex of the femur a second line is drawn along the roof of the intercondylar notch of the femur (Blumensaat line) the point of intersection of these tw...
Article

Pronator teres syndrome

Pronator teres syndrome (also called pronator syndrome) is one of three common median nerve entrapment syndromes; the other two being anterior interosseous nerve syndrome and the far more common carpal tunnel syndrome. Signs and symptoms result from compression of the median nerve in the upper f...
Article

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), previously known as anterior tibial syndrome, is a type of compartment syndrome that is brought on by exercise. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is not known since sufferers may modify the way they exercise and therefore never present. CECS can ...
Article

Ischiofemoral impingement

Ischiofemoral impingement refers to the impingement of soft tissues between the ischial tuberosity and lesser trochanter of the femur, primarily the quadratus femoris muscle manifesting with muscle belly edema. Narrowing of the distance between these two osseous landmarks (ischiofemoral space an...
Article

Snapping iliopsoas tendon

Snapping iliopsoas tendon is one of the external causes of a medial snapping hip and occurs when a portion of the iliopsoas tendon moves abruptly onto the superior pubic ramus leading to a snap.  Epidemiology Most commonly affects athletes with repeated hip abduction (e.g. dancing, gymnastics,...
Article

British Athletics muscle injury classification

The British Athletics muscle injury classification (BAMIC/BAC) is a five-point MRI-based system that is based on extent and site. It has been primarily based on hamstring injuries but is used in other muscle injuries. The classification system has been shown to have moderate inter- and intra-rat...
Article

Valgus extension overload syndrome

Valgus extension overload syndrome, also known as pitcher's elbow, refers to a constellation of symptoms and pathologies commonly seen in overhead throwing athletes secondary to high repetitive tensile, shear and compressive forces generated by the overhead throwing motion. The syndrome may cor...
Article

Posteromedial elbow impingement

Posteromedial elbow impingement is a throwing-induced elbow injury caused by the mechanical bony or soft tissue abutment of the posteromedial elbow joint due to repetitive micro-trauma affecting the posteromedial fossa. It can occur in isolation or as one manifestation of valgus extension overlo...
Article

Sports injuries: overhead elbow

Overhead elbow sports injuries are a group of pathologies seen in sports activities with overhead throwing or strokes, e.g. tennis, volleyball, baseball, javelin throwing. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of participants in these sports activities worldwide. Pathology During ...
Article

Little leaguer's elbow

The little leaguer's elbow was initially coined to describe medial epicondyle avulsion, but more recently it refers to a range of acquired elbow abnormalities in a skeletally immature patient engaged in overhead sports such as tennis, baseball, etc. Epidemiology It occurs in skeletally immatur...
Article

Pivot shift test

The pivot shift test forms part of the orthopedic examination of a post-traumatic knee. A positive test shows high specificity for injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. Procedure The pivot shift test is performed on a supine patient.  At the start the subject's knee is permitted to droop ...
Article

Cuboid syndrome

Cuboid syndrome is a cause of lateral midoot pain, believed to result from abnormal articulation of the cuboid with the calcaneus (calcaneocuboid joint). Clinical presentation Cuboid syndrome presents with lateral foot pain and swelling, often diffuse and similar to an ankle (ligament) sprain ...
Article

Extensor carpi ulnaris tendinopathy

Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendinopathy is varied and includes tendinosis, (stenosing) tenosynovitis, tendon instability and rarely rupture.  Epidemiology Athletes at increased risk of ECU tendinopathy include those who participate in 1,2: racquet sports, e.g. tennis club sports, e.g. golf...
Article

Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow

Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow is the most common pattern of elbow instability, most commonly seen following posterior elbow dislocation 1. It is characterized by 2-4: posterolateral subluxation/dislocation of the radial head relative to capitellum posterior displacement of u...
Article

Osborne-Cotterill lesion

Osborne-Cotterill lesions represent a shear or depression fracture of the posteroinferior aspect of the capitellum and an avulsed fragment in posterolateral elbow most commonly seen in patients with chronic posterolateral rotatory instability.  Pathology It is thought to be due to posterolater...

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